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    第1章

    1. Tim Blanning,The Pursuit of Glory(New York:Penguin Books, 2008), 52.

    2.同上,53.并请参见:J. Neumann and S. Lindgrén, ‘Great Historical Events That Were Significantly Affected by the Weather:4, The Great Famines in Finland and Estonia, 1695–97’,Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society60 (1979), 775–87; Andrew B. Appleby, ‘Epidemics and Famine in the Little Ice Age’,Journal of Interdisciplinary History10:4 (1980):643–63; Cormac  Gráda an d Jean-Mi che l C heve t, ‘Fa mine an d Ma r ke t inA n cien Régi meF ran ce’,Jou r na l o f Economic History62:3 (2002), 706–73.

    3. Nicole Darmon et al., ‘L’insécurité alimentaire pour raisons financières en France’,Observatoire National de la Pauvreté et de l’Exclusion Sociale, https://www.onpes.gouv.fr/IMG/pdf/Darmon.pdf, accessed 3 March 2015; Rapport Annuel 2013,Banques Alimetaires, http://en.calameo.com/read/001358178ec47d2018425, accessed 4 March 2015.

    4. Richard Dobbs et al., ‘How the World Could Better Fight Obesity’, McKinseys & Orgpany, November, 2014, accessed 11 December 2014, http://www.mckinsey.com/insights/economic_studies/how_the_world_could_better_fight_obesity.

    5. ‘Global Burden of Disease, Injuries and Risk Factors Study 2013’,Lancet, 18 December 2014, accessed 18 December 2014, http://www.thelancet.com/themed/global-burden-of-disease; Stephen Adams, ‘Obesity Killing Three Times As Many As Malnutrition’,Telegraph, 13 December 2012, accessed 18 December 2014, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/health/healthnews/9742960/Obesity-killing-three-timesas-many-as-malnutrition.html

    6. Robert S. Lopez,The Birth of Europe[in Hebrew] (Tel Aviv:Dvir, 1990), 427.

    7.


    8. Alfred W. Crosby,The Columbian Exchange:Biological and Cultural Consequences of 1492(Westport:Greenwood Press, 1972); William H. McNeill,Plagues and Peoples(Oxford:Basil Blackwell, 1977).

    9. Hugh Thomas,Conquest:Cortes,Montezuma and the Fall of Old Mexico(New York:Simon & Schuster, 1993), 443–6; Rodolfo Acuna-Soto et al., ‘Megadrought and Megadeath in 16th Century Mexico’,Historical Review8:4 (2002), 360–2; Sherburne F. Cook and Lesley Byrd Simpson,The Population of Central Mexico in the Sixteenth Century (Berkeley:University of Califronia Press, 1948).

    10. Jared Diamond,Guns, Germs and Steel:The Fates of Human Societies[in Hebrew] (Tel Avia:Am Oved, 2002), 167.

    11. Jeffery K. Taubenberger and David M. Morens, ‘1918 Influenza:The Mother of All Pandemics’,Emerging Infectious Diseases12:1 (2006), 15–22; Niall P. A. S. Johnson and Juergen Mueller, ‘Updating the Accounts:Global Mortality of the 1918–1920“Spanish”Influenza Pandemic’,Bulletin of the History of Medicine76:1 (2002), 105–15; Stacey L. Knobler, Alison Mack, Adel Mahmoud et al., ed.,The Threat of Pandemic Influenza:Are We Ready?Workshop Summary(Washington DC:National Academies Press 2005), 57–110; David van Reybrouck,Congo:The Epic History of a People(New York:HarperCollins, 2014), 164; Siddharth Chandra, Goran Kuljanin and Jennifer Wray, ‘Mortality from the Influenza Pandemic of 1918–1919:The Case of India’,Demography49:3 (2012), 857–65; George C. Kohn,Encyclopedia of Plague and Pestilence:From Ancient Times to the Present, 3rd edn (New York:Facts on File, 2008), 363.

    12.从2005年到2010年的平均值,分别是全球4.6%、非洲7.9%、欧洲和北美0.7%。参见:‘Infant Mortality Rate (Both Sexes Orgbined) by Major Area, Region and Country, 1950–2010 (Infant Deaths for 1000 Live Births), estimates’,World Population Prospects: the 2010 Revision, UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs, April 2011, accessed 26 May 2012, http://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp/Excel-Data/mortality.htm.同时参见Alain Bideau, Bertrand Desjardins, and Hector Perez-Brignoli, ed.,Infant and Child Mortality in the Past(Oxford:Clarendon Press, 1997); Edward Anthony Wrigley et al.,English Population Historyfrom Family Reconstitution, 1580–1837(Cambridge:Cambridge University Press, 1997), 295–6, 303.

    13. David A. Koplow, Smallpox:The Fight to Eradicate a Global Scourge(Berkeley:University of California Press, 2004); Abdel R. Omran, ‘The Epidemiological Transition:A Theory of Population Change’,Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly83:4 (2005), 731–57; Thomas McKeown,The Modern Rise of Populations(New York:Academic Press, 1976); Simon Szreter,Health and Wealth:Studies in History and Policy(Rochester:University of Rochester Press, 2005); Roderick Floud, Robert W. Fogel, Bernard Harris and Sok Chul Hong,The Changing Body:Health, Nutrition and Human Development in the Western World since 1700(New York:Cambridge University Press, 2011); James C. Riley,Rising Life Expectancy:A Global History(New York:Cambridge University Press, 2001).

    14. ‘Cholera’, World Health Organization, February 2014, accessed 18 December 2014, http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs107/en/index.html.

    15. ‘Experimental Therapies:Growing Interest in the Use of Whole Blood or Plasma from Recovered Ebola Patients’, World Health Organization, September 26, 2014, accessed 23 April 2015, http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/ebola/26–september-2014/en/ .

    16. Hung Y. Fan, Ross F. Conner and Luis P. Villarreal,AIDS:Science and Society, 6th edn (Sudbury:Jones and Bartlett Publishers, 2011).

    17. Peter Piot and Thomas C. Quinn, ‘Response to the AIDS Pandemic – A Global Health Model’,TheNew England Journal of Medicine368:23 (2013):2210–18.

    18.在官方数据中,从未将“老死”列入死因。如果某位妇人年老体衰,最终因为某种感染而再也撑不下去,账面上就会将感染列为正式死因。因此从官方数据来看,因传染病而死的人仍然占总死亡人数的20%以上。然而现在的情形绝对已经和过去大为不同:当时传染病带走的是大批儿童及健壮成年人的生命。

    19. David M. Livermore, ‘Bacterial Resistance:Origins, Epidemiology, and Impact’,Clinical Infectious Diseases36:s1 (2005), s11–23; Richards G. Wax et al., ed.,Bacterial Resistance to Antimicrobials, 2nd edn (Boca Raton:CRC Press, 2008); Maja Babic and Robert A. Bonomo, ‘Mutations as a Basis of Antimicrobial Resistance’, inAntimicrobial Drug Resistance:Mechanisms of Drug Resistance, ed. Douglas Mayers, vol. 1 (New York:Humana Press, 2009), 65–74; Julian Davies and Dorothy Davies, ‘Origins and Evolution of Antibiotic Resistance’,Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews74:3 (2010), 417–33; Richard J. Fair and Yitzhak Tor, ‘Antibiotics and Bacterial Resistance in the 21st Century’,Perspectives in Medicinal Chemistry6 (2014), 25–64.

    20. Alfonso J. Alanis, ‘Resistance to Antibiotics:Are We in the Post-Antibiotic Era?’,Archives of Medical Research36:6 (2005), 697–705; Stephan Harbarth and Matthew H. Samore, ‘Antimicrobial Resistance Determinants and Future Control’,Emerging Infectious Diseases11:6 (2005), 794–801; Hiroshi Yoneyama and Ryoichi Katsumata, ‘Antibiotic Resistance in Bacteria and Its Future for Novel Antibiotic Development’,Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry70:5 (2006), 1060–75; Cesar A. Arias and Barbara E. Murray, ‘Antibiotic-Resistant Bugs in the 21st Century – A Clinical Super-Challenge’,New England Journal of Medicine360 (2009), 439–43; Brad Spellberg, John G. Bartlett and David N. Gilbert, ‘The Future of Antibiotics and Resistance’,New England Journal of Medicine368 (2013), 299–302.

    21. Losee L. Ling et al., ‘A New Antibiotic Kills Pathogens without Detectable Resistance’,Nature517 (2015), 455–9; Gerard Wright, ‘Antibiotics:An Irresistible Newcomer’,Nature517 (2015), 442–4.

    22. Roey Tzezana,The Guide to the Future[in Hebrew] (Haifa:Roey Tzezana, 2013), 209–33.

    23. Azar Gat,War in Human Civilization(Oxford:Oxford University Press, 2006), 130–1; Steven Pinker,The Better Angels of Our Nature:Why Violence Has Declined(New York:Viking, 2011); Joshua S. Goldstein,Winning the War on War:The Decline of Armed Conflict Worldwide(New York:Dutton, 2011); Robert S. Walker and Drew H. Bailey, ‘Body Counts in Lowland South American Violence’,Evolution and Human Behavior 34:1 (2013), 29–34; I. J. N. Thorpe, ‘Anthropology, Archaeology, and the Origin of Warfare’,World Archaology35:1 (2003), 145–65; Raymond C. Kelly,Warless Societies and the Origin of War(Ann Arbor:University of Michigan Press, 2000); Lawrence H. Keeley,War before Civilization:The Myth of the Peaceful Savage(Oxford:Oxford University Press, 1996); Slavomil Vencl, ‘Stone Age Warfare’, inAncient Warfare:Archaeological Perspectives, ed. John Carman and Anthony Harding (Stroud:Sutton Publishing, 1999), 57–73.

    24. ‘Global Health Observatory Data Repository, 2012’, World Health Organization, accessed 16 August 2015, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.RCODWORLD?lang=en; ‘Global Study on Homicide, 2013’, UNDOC, accessed 16 August 2015, http://www.unodc.org/documents/gsh/pdfs/2014_GLOBAL_HOMICIDE_BOOK_web.pdf; http://www.who.int/healthinfo/global_burden_disease/estimates/en/index1.html.

    25. Van Reybrouck,Congo, 456–7.

    26.关于肥胖造成的死亡:‘Global Burden of Disease, Injuries and Risk Factors Study 2013’,Lancet, 18 December 2014, accessed 18 December 2014, http://www.thelancet.com/themed/global-burden-of-disease; Stephen Adams, ‘Obesity Killing Three Times As Many As Malnutrition’,Telegraph, 13 December 2012, accessed 18 December 2014, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/health/healthnews/9742960/Obesity-killing-three-times-as-many-as-malnutrition.html.关于恐怖主义造成的死亡:Global Terrorism Database, http://www.start.umd.edu/gtd/, accessed 16 January 2016.

    27. Arion McNicoll, ‘How Google’s Calico Aims to Fight Aging and“Solve Death”’, CNN, 3 October 2013, accessed 19 December 2014, http://edition.cnn.com/2013/10/03/tech/innovation/google-calico-aging-death/.

    28. Katrina Brooker, ‘Google Ventures and the Search for Immortality’,Bloomberg, 9 March 2015, accessed 15 April 2015, http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2015–03–09/google-ventures-bill-maris-investing-in-idea-of-livingto-500.

    29. Mick Brown, ‘Peter Thiel:The Billionaire Tech Entrepreneur on a Mission to Cheat Death’,Telegraph, 19 September 2014, accessed 19 December 2014, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/11098971/Peter-Thiel-the-billionaire-techentrepreneur-on-a-mission-to-cheat-death.html.

    30. Kim Hill et al., ‘Mortality Rates among Wild Chimpanzees’,Journal of Human Evolution40:5 (2001):437–50; James G. Herndon, ‘Brain Weight Throughout the Life Span of the Chimpanzee’,Journal of Orgparative Neurology409 (1999):567–72.

    31. Beatrice Scheubel,Bismarck’s Institutions:A Historical Perspective on the Social Security Hypothesis (Tubingen:Mohr Siebeck, 2013); E. P. Hannock,The Origin of the Welfare State in England and Germany, 1850–1914(Cambridge:Cambridge University Press, 2007).

    32. ‘Mental Health:Age Standardized Suicide Rates (per 100,000 Population), 2012’, World Health Organization, accessed 28 December 2014, http://gamapserver.who.int/gho/interactive_charts/mental_health/suicide_rates/atlas.html.

    33. Ian Morris,Why the West Rules – For Now(Toronto:McClelland & Stewart, 2010), 626–9.

    34. David G. Myers, ‘The Funds, Friends, and Faith of Happy People’,American Psychologist55:1 (2000), 61; Ronald Inglehart et al., ‘Development, Freedom, and Rising Happiness:A Global Perspective (1981–2007)’,Perspectives on Psychological Science3:4 (2008), 264–85.同时参见Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, ‘If We Are So Rich, Why Aren’t We Happy?’,American Psychologist54:10 (1999), 821–7; Gregg Easterbrook,The Progress Paradox:How Life Gets Better While People Feel Worse(New York:Random House, 2003).

    35. Ke nji Suzuki, ‘Ar e They Frigid to the Ec o n o mic Development?Reconsideration of the Economic Effect on Subjective Well-being in Japan’,Social Indicators Research92:1 (2009), 81–9; Richard A. Easterlin, ‘Will Raising the Incomes of all Increase the Happiness of All?’,Journal of Economic Bheavior and Organization27:1 (1995), 35–47; Richard A. Easterlin, ‘Diminishing Marginal Utility of Income?Caveat Emptor’,Social Indicators Research70:3 (2005), 243–55.

    36. Linda C. Raeder,John Stuart Mill and the Religion of Humanity(Columbia:University of Missouri Press, 2002).

    37. Oliver Turnbull and Mark Solms,TheBrain and the Inner World[in Hebrew] (Tel Aviv:Hakibbutz Hameuchad, 2005), 92–6; Kent C. Berridge and Morten L. Kringelbach, ‘Affective Neuroscience of Pleasure:Reward in Humans and Animals’,Psychopharmacology199 (2008), 457–80; Morten L. Kringelbach,The Pleasure Center:Trust Your Animal Instincts(Oxford:Oxford University Press, 2009).

    38. M. Csikszentmihalyi,Finding Flow:The Psychology of Engagement with Everyday Life(New York:Basic Books, 1997).

    39. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/data.html, accessed 4 January 2016; Sarah Harris, ‘Number of Children Given Drugs for ADHD Up Ninefold with Patients As Young As Three Being Prescribed Ritalin’,Daily Mail, 28 June 2013, http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-2351427/Number-children-given-drugs-ADHD-ninefold-patients-young-THREE-prescribedRitalin.html, accessed 4 January 2016; International Narcotics Control Board (UN),Psychotropics Substances, Statistics for 2013, Assessments of Annual Medical and Scientific Requirements 2014, 39–40.

    40.关于学生滥用此类兴奋剂的证据仍然不足,但2013年的一项研究发现,美国大学生有5%~15%曾非法使用某种兴奋剂至少一次:C. Ian Ragan, Imre Bard and Ilina Singh, ‘What Should We Do about Student Use of Cognitive Enhancers?An Analysis of Current Evidence’,Neuropharmacology64 (2013), 589.

    41. Bradley J. Partridge, ‘Smart Drugs“As Orgmon as Coffee”:Media Hype about Neuroenhancement’,PLoS One6:11 (2011), e28416.

    42. Office of the Chief of Public Affairs Press Release, ‘Army, Health Promotion Risk Reduction Suicide Prevention Report, 2010’, accessed 23 December 2014, http://csf2.army.mil/downloads/HP-RR-SPReport2010.pdf; Mark Thompson, ‘America’s Medicated Army’,Time, 5 June 2008, accessed 19 December 2014, http://content.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1812055,00.html; Office of the Surgeon Multi-National Force-Iraq and Office of the Orgmand Surgeon, ‘Mental Health Advisory Team (MHAT) V Operation Iraqi Freedom 06–08:Iraq Operation Enduring Freedom 8:Afghanistan’, 14 February 2008, accessed 23 December 2014, http://www.careforthetroops.org/reports/Report-MHATV-4–FEB-2008–Overview.pdf.

    43. Tina L. Dorsey, ‘Drugs and Crime Facts’, US Department of Justice, accessed 20 February 2015, http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/dcf.pdf; H. C. West, W. J. Sabol and S. J. Greenman, ‘Prisoners in 2009’, US Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin (December 2010), 1–38; ‘Drugs And Crime Facts:Drug use and Crime’, US Department of Justice, accessed 19 December 2014, http://www.bjs.gov/content/dcf/duc.cfm; ‘Offender Management Statistics Bulletin, July to September 2014’, UK Ministry of Justice, 29 January 2015, accessed 20 February 2015, https://www.gov.uk/government/statistics/offender-management-statistics-quarterly-july-to-september-2014.; Mirian Lights et al., ‘Gender Differences in Substance Misuse and Mental Health amongst Prisoners’, UK Ministry of Justice, 2013, accessed 20 February 2015, https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/220060/gendersubstance-misuse-mental-health-prisoners.pdf; Jason Payne and Antonette Gaffney, ‘How Much Crime is Drug or Alcohol Related?Self-Reported Attributions of Police Detainees’,Trends & Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice439 (2012), http://www.aic.gov.au/media_library/publications/tandi_pdf/tandi439.pdf, accessed 11 March 2015; Philippe Robert, ‘The French Criminal Justice System’, in Punishment in Europe:A Critical Anatomy of Penal Systems, ed. Vincenzo Ruggiero and Mick Ryan (Houndmills:Palgrave Macmillan, 2013), 116.

    44. Betsy Isaacson, ‘Mind Control:How EEG Devices Will Read Your Brain Waves And Change Your World’,Huffington Post, 20 November 2014, accessed 20 December 2014, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/11/20/mind-controlhow-eeg-devices-read-brainwaves_n_2001431.html; ‘EPOC Headset’,Emotiv, http://emotiv.com/store/epoc-detail/; ‘Biosensor Innovation to Power Breakthrough Wearable Technologies Today and Tomorrow’,NeuroSky, http://neurosky.com/.

    45. Samantha Payne, ‘Stockholm:Members of Epicenter Workspace Are Using Microchip Implants to Open Doors’,International Business Times, 31 January 2015, accessed 9 August 2015, http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/stockholm-office-workersepicenter-implanted-microchips-pay-their-lunch-1486045.

    46. Meika Loe,The Rise of Viagra:How the Little Blue Pill Changed Sex in America(New York:New York University Press, 2004).

    47. Brian Morgan, ‘Saints and Sinners:Sir Harold Gillies’,Bulletin of the Royal College of Surgeons of England, 95:6 (2013), 204–5; Donald W. Buck II, ‘A Link to Gillies:One Surgeon’s Quest to Uncover His Surgical Roots’,Annals of Plastic Surgery68:1 (2012), 1–4.

    48. Paolo Santoni-Rugio,A History of Plastic Surgery(Berlin, Heidelberg:Springer, 2007); P. Niclas Broer, Steven M. Levine and Sabrina Juran, ‘Plastic Surgery:Quo Vadis?Current Trends and Future Projections of Aesthetic Plastic Surgical Procedures in the United States’,Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery133:3 (2014):293e–302e.

    49. Holly Firfer, ‘How Far Will Couples Go to Conceive?’, CNN, 17 June 2004, accessed 3 May 2015, http://edition.cnn.com/2004/HEALTH/03/12/infertility.treatment/index.html?iref=allsearch.

    50. Rowena Mason and Hannah Devlin, ‘MPs Vote in Favour of“Three-Person Embryo”Law’,Guardian, 3 February 2015, accessed 3 May 2015, http://www.theguardian.com/science/2015/feb/03/mps-vote-favour-three-person-embryo-law.

    51. Lionel S. Smith and Mark D. E. Fellowes, ‘Towards a Lawn without Grass:The Journey of the Imperfect Lawn and Its Analogues’,Studies in the History of Gardens & Designed Landscape 33:3 (2013), 158–9; John Dixon Hunt and Peter Willis, ed.,The Genius of the Place:The English Landscape Garden 1620–1820, 5th edn (Cambridge, MA:MIT Press, 2000), 1–45; Anne Helmriech,The English Garden and National Identity:The Orgpeting Styles of Garden Design 1870–1914(Cambridge:Cambridge University Press, 2002), 1–6.

    52. Robert J. Lake, ‘Social Class, Etiquette and Behavioral Restraint in British Lawn Tennis’,International Journal of the History of Sport28:6 (2011), 876–94; Beatriz Colomina, ‘The Lawn at War:1941–1961’, inThe American Lawn, ed. Georges Teyssot (New York:Princeton Architectural Press, 1999), 135–53; Virginia Scott Jenkins,The Lawn:History of an American Obsession(Washington:Smithsonian Institution, 1994).

    第2章

    1. ‘Canis lupus’, IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, accessed 20 December 2014, http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/3746/1; ‘Fact Sheet:Gray Wolf’,Defenders of Wildlife, accessed 20 December 2014, http://www.defenders.org/gray-wolf/basic-facts; ‘Orgpanion Animals’,IFAH, accessed 20 December 2014, http://www.ifaheurope.org/companion-animals/about-pets.html; ‘Global Review 2013’, World Animal Protection, accessed 20 December 2014, https://www.worldanimalprotection.us.org/sites/default/files/us_files/global_review_2013_0.pdf.

    2. Anthony D. Barnosky, ‘Megafauna Biomass Tradeoff as a Driver of Quaternary and Future Extinctions’,PNAS105:1 (2008), 11543–8;关于狼和狮子:William J. Ripple et al., ‘Status and Ecological Effects of the World’s Largest Carnivores’,Science343:6167 (2014), 151;Stanley Coren博士认为世界上有大约5亿条狗:Stanley Coren, ‘How Many Dogs Are There in the World’,Psychology Today, 19 September 2012, accessed 20 December 2014, http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/canine-corner/201209/how-many-dogs-are-there-inthe-world;关于猫的数目,请见:Nicholas Wade, ‘DNA Traces 5 Matriarchs of 600 Million Domestic Cats’,New York Times, 29 June 2007, accessed 20 December 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2007/06/29/health/29iht-cats.1.6406020.html;关于非洲水牛,请见:‘Syncerus caffer’, IUCN Red List of Threa- tened Species, accessed 20 December 2014, http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/21251/0;关于牛的数目,请见:David Cottle and Lewis Kahn, ed.,Beef Cattle Production and Trade(Collingwood:Csiro, 2014), 66;关于鸡的数目,请见:‘Live Animals’,Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations:Statistical Division, accessed December 20, 2014, http://faostat3.fao.org/browse/Q/QA/E;关于黑猩猩的数目,请见:‘Pan troglodytes’, IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, accessed 20 December 2014, http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/15933/0.

    3. ‘Living Planet Report 2014’, WWF Global, accessed 20 December 2014, http://wwf.panda.org/about_our_earth/all_publications/living_planet_report/.

    4. Richard Inger et al., ‘Orgmon European Birds are Declining Rapidly While Less Abundant Species’ Numbers Are Rising’,Ecology Letters18:1 (2014), 28–36; ‘Live Animals’, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, accessed 20 December 2014, http://faostat.fao.org/site/573/default.aspx#ancor.

    5. Simon L. Lewis and Mark A. Maslin, ‘Defining the Anthropocene’,Nature519 (2015), 171–80.

    6. Timothy F. Flannery,The Future Eaters:An Ecological History of the Australasian Lands and Peoples(Port Melbourne:Reed Books Australia, 1994); Anthony D. Barnosky et al., ‘Assessing the Causes of Late Pleistocene Extinctions on the Continents’,Science 306:5693 (2004), 70–5; Bary W. Brook and David M. J. S. Bowman, ‘The Uncertain Blitzkrieg of Pleistocene Megafauna’,Journal of Biogeography 31:4 (2004), 517–23; Gifford H. Miller et al., ‘Ecosystem Collapse in Pleistocene Australia and a Human Role in Megafaunal Extinction’,Science 309:5732 (2005), 287–90; Richard G. Roberts et al., ‘New Ages for the Last Australian Megafauna:Continent Wide Extinction about 46,000 Years Ago’,Science 292:5523 (2001), 1888–92; Stephen Wroe and Judith Field, ‘A Review of Evidence for a Human Role in the Extinction of Australian Megafauna and an Alternative Explanation’,Quaternary Science Reviews25:21–2 (2006), 2692–703; Barry W. Brooks et al., ‘Would the Australian Megafauna Have Become Extinct If Humans Had Never Colonised the Continent?Orgments on“A Review of the Evidence for a Human Role in the Extinction of Australian Megafauna and an Alternative Explanation”by S. Wroe and J. Field’,Quaternary Science Reviews26:3–4 (2007), 560–4; Chris S. M. Turney et al., ‘Late-Surviving Megafauna in Tasmania, Australia, Implicate Human Involvement in their Extinction’,PNAS105:34 (2008), 12150–3; John Alroy, ‘A Multispecies Overkill Simulation of the End-Pleistocene Megafaunal Mass Extinction’,Science292:5523 (2001), 1893–6; J. F. O’Connel and J. Allen, ‘Pre-LGM Sahul (Australia-New Guinea) and the Archaeology of Early Modern Humans’, inRethinking the Human Evolution:New Behavioral and Biological Perspectives on the Origin and Dispersal of Modern Humans, ed. Paul Mellars (Cambridge:McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, 2007), 400–1.

    7. Graham Harvey,Animism:Respecting the Living World(Kent Town:Wakefield Press, 2005); Rane Willerslev,Soul Hunters:Hunting, Animism and Personhood Among the Siberian Yukaghirs(Berkeley:University of California Press, 2007); Elina Helander-Renvall, ‘Animism, Personhood and the Nature of Reality:Sami Perspectives’,Polar Record46:1 (2010), 44–56; Istvan Praet, ‘Animal Conceptions in Animism and Conservation’, inRoutledge Handbook of HumanAnimal Studies, ed. Susan McHaugh and Garry Marvin (New York:Routledge, 2014), 154–67; Nurit Bird-David, ‘Animism Revisited:Personhood, Environment, and Relational Epistemology’,Current Anthropology40 (1999): s67–91; N. BirdDavid, ‘Animistic Epistemology:Why Some Hunter-Gatherers Do Not Depict Animals’,Ethnos71:1 (2006):33–50.

    8. Danny Naveh, ‘Changes in the Perception of Animals and Plants with the Shift to Agricultural Life:What Can Be Learnt from the Nayaka Case, A HunterGatherer Society from the Rain Forests of Southern India?’[in Hebrew],Animals and Society, 52 (2015):7–8.

    9. Howard N. Wallace, ‘The Eden Narrative’,Harvard Semitic Monographs32 (1985), 147–81.

    10. David Adams Leeming and Margaret Adams Leeming,Encyclopedia of Creation Myths(Santa Barbara:ABC-CLIO, 1994), 18; Sam D. Gill,Storytracking:Texts, Stories, and Histories in Central Australia(Oxford:Oxford University Press, 1998); Emily Miller Bonney, ‘Disarming the Snake Goddess:A Reconsideration of the Faience Figures from the Temple Repositories at Knossos’,Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology24:2 (2011), 171–90; David Leeming,The Oxford Orgpanion to World Mythology(Oxford and New York:Oxford University Press, 2005), 350.

    11. Jerome H. Barkow, Leda Cosmides and John Tooby, ed.,The Adapted Mind:Evolutionary Psychology and the Generation of Culture(Oxford:Oxford University Press, 1992); Richard W. Bloom and Nancy Dess, ed.,Evolutionary Psychology and Violence:A Primer for Policymakers and Public Policy Advocates (Westport:Praeger, 2003); Charles Crawford and Catherine Salmon, ed.,Evolutionary Psychology, Public Policy and Personal Decisions(New Jersey:Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2008); Patrick McNamara and David Trumbull,An Evolutionary Psychology of Leader–Follower Relations(New York:Nova Science, 2007); Joseph P. Forgas, Martie G. Haselton and William von Hippel, ed.,Evolution and the Social Mind:Evolutionary Psychology and Social Cognition(New York:Psychology Press, 2011).

    12. S. Held, M. Mendl, C. Devereux and R. W. Byrne, ‘Social tactics of pigs in a competitive foraging the task: the“informed forager”paradigm’,Animal Behaviour59:3 (2000), 569–76; S. Held, M. Mendl, C. Devereux and R. W. Byrne, ‘Studies in social cognition: from primates to pigs’,Animal Welfare10 (2001), s209–17; H. B. Graves, ‘Behavior and ecology of wild and feral swine (Sus scrofa)’,Journal of Animal Science58:2 (1984), 482–92; A. Stolba and D. G. M. WoodGush, ‘The behaviour of pigs in a semi-natural environment’,Animal Production48:2 (1989), 419–25; M. Spinka, ‘Behaviour in pigs’, in P. Jensen (ed.),The Ethology of Domestic Animals, 2nd edition (Wallingford, UK:CAB International, 2009), 177–91; P. Jensen and D. G. M. Wood-Gush, ‘Social interactions in a group of free-ranging sows’,Applied Animal Behaviour Science12 (1984), 327–37; E. T. Gieling, R. E. Nordquist and F. J. van der Staay, ‘Assessing learning and memory in pigs’,Animal Cognition14 (2011), 151–73.

    13. I. Horrell and J. Hodgson, ‘The bases of sow-piglet identification.2.Cues used by piglets to identify their dam and home pen’,Applied Animal Behavior Science, 33 (1992), 329–43; D. M. Weary and D. Fraser, ‘Calling by domestic piglets:Reliable signals of need?’,Animal Behaviour50:4 (1995), 1047–55; H. H. Kristensen et al., ‘The use of olfactory and other cues for social recognition by juvenile pigs’,Applied Animal Behaviour Science72 (2001), 321-–33.

    14. M. Helft, ‘Pig video arcades critique life in the pen’,Wired, 6 June 1997, http://archive.wired.com/science/discoveries/news/1997/06/4302 retrieved 27 January 2016.

    15. Humane Society of the United States, ‘An HSUS Report:Welfare Issues with Gestation Crates for Pregnant Sows’, February 2013, http://www.humanesociety.org/assets/pdfs/farm/HSUS-Report-on-Gestation-Crates-forPregnant-Sows.pdf, retrieved 27 January 2016.

    16. Turnbull and Solms,Brain and the Inner World, 90–2.

    17. David Harel,Algorithmics:The Spirit of Orgputers, 3rd edn [in Hebrew] (Tel Aviv:Open University of Israel, 2001), 4–6; David Berlinski,The Advent of the Algorithm:The 300-Year Journey from an Idea to the Orgputer(San Diego:Harcourt, 2000); Hartley Rogers Jr,Theory of Recursive Functions and Effective Orgputability, 3rd edn (Cambridge, MA and London:MIT Press, 1992), 1–5; Andreas Blass and Yuri Gurevich, ‘Algorithms:A Quest for Absolute Definitions’,Bulletin of European Association for Theoretical Orgputer Science81 (2003), 195–225; Donald E, Knuth, The Art of Orgputer Programming, 2nd edn (New Jersey:Addison-Wesley Publishing Orgpany, 1973).

    18. Daniel Kahneman,Thinking, Fast and Slow(New York:Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 2011); Dan Ariely,Predictably Irrational(New York:Harper, 2009).

    19. Justin Gregg,Are Dolphins Really Smart?The Mammal Behind the Myth(Oxford:Oxford University Press, 2013), 81–7; Jaak Panksepp, ‘Affective Consciousness:Core Emotional Feelings in Animals and Humans’,Consciousness and Cognition14:1 (2005), 30–80.

    20. A. S. Fleming, D. H. O’Day and G. W. Kraemer, ‘Neurobiology of Mother–Infant Interactions:Experience and Central Nervous System Plasticity Across Development and Generations’,Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews23:5 (1999), 673–85; K. D. Broad, J. P. Curley and E. B. Keverne, ‘Mother–Infant Bonding and the Evolution of Mammalian Relationship’,Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B361:1476 (2006), 2199–214; Kazutaka Mogi, Miho Nagasawa and Takefumi Kikusui, ‘Developmental Consequences and Biological Significance of Mother-Infant Bonding’,Progress in NeuroPsychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry35:5 (2011), 1232–41; Shota Okabe et al., ‘The Importance of Mother–Infant Orgmunication for Social Bond Formation in Mammals’,Animal Science Journal83:6 (2012), 446–52.

    21. Jean O’Malley Halley,Boundaries of Touch:Parenting and Adult–Child Intimacy (Urbana:University of Illinois Press, 2007), 50–1; Ann Taylor Allen,Feminism and Motherhood in Western Europe, 1890–1970:The Maternal Dilemma(New York:Palgrave Macmillan, 2005), 190.

    22. Lucille C. Birnbaum, ‘Behaviorism in the 1920s’,American Quarterly7:1 (1955), 18.

    23. US Department of Labor (1929), ‘Infant Care’, Washington:United States Government Printing Office, http://www.mchlibrary.info/history/chbu/3121–1929.PDF.

    24. Harry Harlow and Robert Zimmermann, ‘Affectional Responses in the Infant Monkey’,Science 130:3373 (1959), 421–32; Harry Harlow, ‘The Nature of Love’,American Psychologist 13 (1958), 673–85; Laurens D. Young et al., ‘Early Stress and Later Response to Sepration in Rhesus Monkeys’,American Journal of Psychiatry 130:4 (1973), 400–5; K. D. Broad, J. P. Curley and E. B. Keverne, ‘Mother–Infant Bonding and the Evolution of Mammalian Social Relationships’,Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Soceity B361:1476(2006), 2199–214; Florent Pittet et al., ‘Effects of Maternal Experience on Fearfulness and Maternal Behavior in a Precocial Bird’,Animal Behavior 85:4(2013), 797–805.

    25. Jacques Cauvin,The Birth of the Gods and the Origins of Agriculture(Cambridge:Cambridge University Press, 2000); Tim Ingord, ‘From Trust to Domination:An Alternative History of Human–Animals Relations’, inAnimals and Human Society:Changing Perspectives, ed. Aubrey Manning and James Serpell (New York:Routledge, 2002), 1–22; Roberta Kalechofsky, ‘Hierarchy, Kinship and Responsibility’, inA Orgmunion of Subjects:Animals in Religion, Science and Ethics, ed. Kimberley Patton and Paul Waldau (New York:Columbia University Press, 2006), 91–102; Nerissa Russell,Social Zooarchaeology:Humans and Animals in Prehistory(Cambridge:Cambridge University Press, 2012), 207–58; Margo DeMello,Animals and Society:An Introduction to Human–Animal Studies(New York:University of Columbia Press, 2012).

    26. Olivia Lang, ‘Hindu Sacrifice of 250,000 Animals Begins’,Guardian, 24 November 2009, accessed 21 December 2014, http://www.theguardian.com/world/2009/nov/24/hindu-sacrifice-gadhimai-festival-nepal.

    27. Benjamin R. Foster, ed.,The Epic of Gilgamesh(New York, London:W. W. Norton, 2001), 90.

    28. Noah J. Cohen,Tsa’ar Ba’ale Hayim:Prevention of Cruelty to Animals:Its Bases, Development and Legislation in Hebrew Literature(Jerusalem, New York:Feldheim Publishers, 1976); Roberta Kalechofsky,Judaism and Animal Rights:Classical and Contemporary Responses (Marblehead:Micah Publications, 1992); Dan Cohen-Sherbok, ‘Hope for the Animal Kingdom:A Jewish Vision’, inA Orgmunion of Subjects:Animals in Religion, Science and Ethics, ed. Kimberley Patton and Paul Waldau (New York:Columbia University Press, 2006), 81–90; Ze’ev Levi, ‘Ethical Issues of Animal Welfare in Jewish Thought’, inJudaism and Environmental Ethics:A Reader, ed. Martin D. Yaffe (Plymouth:Lexington, 2001), 321–32; Norm Phelps,The Dominion of Love:Animal Rights According to the Bible(New York:Lantern Books, 2002); Dovid Sears,The Vision of Eden:Animal Welfare and Vegetarianism in Jewish Law Mysticism(Spring Valley:Orot, 2003); Nosson Slifkin,Man and Beast:Our Relationships with Animals in Jewish Law and Thought(New York:Lambda, 2006).

    29. Talmud Bavli, Bava Metzia, 85:71.

    30. Christopher Chapple,Nonviolence to Animals, Earth and Self in Asian Traditions(New York:State University of New York Press, 1993); Panchor Prime,Hinduism and Ecology:Seeds of Truth(London:Cassell, 1992); Christopher Key Chapple, ‘The Living Cosmos of Jainism:A Traditional Science Grounded in Environmental Ethics’,Daedalus130:4 (2001), 207–24; Norm Phelps,The Great Orgpassion:Buddhism and Animal Rights (New York:Lantern Books, 2004); Damien Keown,Buddhist Ethics:A Very Short Introduction(Oxford:Oxford University Press, 2005), ch. 3; Kimberley Patton and Paul Waldau, ed.,A Orgmunion of Subjects:Animals in Religion, Science and Ethics(New York:Columbia University Press, 2006), esp.179–250; Pragati Sahni,Environmental Ethics in Buddhism:A Virtues Approach (New York:Routledge, 2008); Lisa Kemmerer and Anthony J. Nocella II, ed.,Call to Orgpassion:Reflections on Animal Advocacy from the World’s Religions(New York:Lantern, 2011), esp.15–103; Lisa Kemmerer,Animals and World Religions(Oxford:Oxford University Press, 2012), esp.56–126; Irina Aristarkhova, ‘Thou Shall Not Harm All Living Beings:Feminism, Jainism and Animals’,Hypatia27:3 (2012):636–50; Eva de Clercq, ‘Karman and Orgpassion:Animals in the Jain Universal History’,Religions of South Asia7 (2013):141–57.

    31. Naveh, ‘Changes in the Perception of Animals and Plants’, 11.

    第3章

    1. ‘Evolution, Creationism, Intelligent Design’, Gallup, accessed 20 December 2014, http://www.gallup.com/poll/21814/evolution-creationism-intelligentdesign.aspx; Frank Newport, ‘In US, 46 percent Hold Creationist View of Human Origins’, Gallup, 1 June 2012, accessed 21 December 2014, http://www.gallup.com/poll/155003/hold-creationist-view-human-origins.aspx.

    2. Gregg,Are Dolphins Really Smart?, 82–3.

    3. Stanislas Dehaene,Consciousness and the Brain:Deciphering How the Brain Codes Our Thoughts(New York:Viking, 2014); Steven Pinker,How the Mind Works(New York:W. W. Norton, 1997).

    4. Dehaene,Consciousness and the Brain.

    5.有些专家可能会提到哥德尔不完备定理(G搀攀氀’s incompleteness theorem),也就是认为没有任何数学的公理(axiom)系统能够证明所有算术真理,一定会有某些真实的陈述,无法在该系统中证明。而在通俗文学里,有时候就会把这项定理挪用过来,用以说明心灵的存在。照其说法,正是因为有无法证明的事实,所以需要用心灵来处理。只不过,一般人只是想要生存和繁衍,实在看不出来为什么需要与这些神秘的数学真理扯上关系。事实上,我们绝大多数有意识的决定,都与以上这些问题完全无关。

    6. Christopher Steiner,Automate This:How Algorithms Came to Rule Our World (New York:Penguin, 2012), 215; Tom Vanderbilt, ‘Let the Robot Drive:The Autonomous Car of the Future is Here’,Wired, 20 January 2012, accessed 21 December 2014, http://www.wired.com/2012/01/ff_autonomouscars/all/; Chris Urmson, ‘The Self-Driving Car Logs More Miles on New Wheels’, Google Official Blog, 7 August 2012, accessed 23 December 2014, http://googleblog.blogspot.hu/2012/08/the-self-driving-car-logs-more-miles-on.html; Matt Richtel and Conor Dougherty, ‘Google’s Driverless Cars Run Into Problem:Cars With Drivers’,New York Times, 1 September 2015, accessed 2 September 2015, http://www.nytimes.com/2015/09/02/technology/personaltech/google-says-its-not-the-driverless-carsfault-its-other-drivers.html?_r=1.

    7. Dehaene,Consciousness and the Brain.

    8. Ibid., ch. 7.

    9. ‘The Cambridge Declaration on Consciousness’, 7 July 2012, accessed 21 December 2014, https://web.archive.org/web/20131109230457/http://fcmconference.org/img/CambridgeDeclarationOnConsciousness.pdf.

    10. John F. Cyran, Rita J. Valentino and Irwin Lucki, ‘Assessing Substrates Underlying the Behavioral Effects of Antidepressants Using the Modified Rat Forced Swimming Test’,Neuroscience and Behavioral Reviews, 29:4–5 (2005), 569–74; Benoi t Pe ti t-De mou li ère, F ran k C henu an d Mi che l Bou rin, ‘Fo r ce d S wi m ming Te s t in Mice:A Review of Antidepressant Activity’,Psychopharmacology177:3 (2005), 245–55; Leda S. B. Garcia et al.,‘Acute Administration of Ketamine Induces Antidepressant-like Effects in the Forced Swimming Test and Increases BDNF Levels in the Rat Hippocampus’,Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 32:1 (2008), 140–4; John F. Cryan, Cedric Mombereau and Annick Vassout, ‘The Tail Suspension Test as a Model for Assessing Antidepressant Activity:Review of Pharmacological and Genetic Studies in Mice’,Neuroscience and Behavioral Reviews29:4–5 (2005), 571–625; James J. Crowley, Julie A. Blendy and Irwin Lucki, ‘Strain-dependent Antidepressant-like Effects of Citalopram in the Mouse Tail Suspension Test’,Psychopharmacology183:2 (2005), 257–64; Juan C. Brenes, Michael Padilla and Jaime Fornaguera, ‘A Detailed Analysis of OpenField Habituation and Behavioral and Neurochemical Antidepressant-like Effects in Postweaning Enriched Rats’,Behavioral Brain Research197:1 (2009), 125–37; Juan Carlos Brenes Sáenz, Odir Rodríguez Villagra and Jaime Fornaguera Trías, ‘Factor Analysis of Forced Swimming Test, Sucrose Preference Test and Open Field Test on Enriched, Social and Isolated Reared Rats’,Behavioral Brain Research169:1 (2006), 57–65.

    11. Marc Bekoff, ‘Observations of Scent-Marking and Discriminating Self from Others by a Domestic Dog (Canis familiaris):Tales of Displaced Yellow Snow’,Behavioral Processes55:2 (2011), 75–9.

    12.关于不同程度的自我意识,请参见:Gregg,Are Dolphins Really Smart?, 59–66.

    13. Carolyn R. Raby et al., ‘Planning for the Future by Western Scrub Jays’,Nature445:7130 (2007), 919–21.

    14. Michael Balter, ‘Stone-Throwing Chimp is Back – And This Time It’s Personal’,Science, 9 May 2012, accessed 21 December 2014, http://news.sciencemag.org/2012/05/stone-throwing-chimp-back-and-time-its-personal; Sara J. Shettleworth, ‘Clever Animals and Killjoy Explanations in Orgparative Psychology’,Trends in Coginitive Sciences14:11 (2010), 477–81.

    15. Gregg,Are Dolphins Really Smart?; Nicola S.Clayton, Timothy J. Bussey, and Anthony Dickinson, ‘Can Animals Recall the Past and Plan for the Future?’,Nature Reviews Neuroscience4:8 (2003), 685–91; William A. Roberts, ‘Are Animals Stuck in Time?’,Psychological Bulletin128:3 (2002), 473–89; Endel Tulving, ‘Episodic Memory and Autonoesis:Uniquely Human?’, inThe Missing Link in Cognition:Evolution of Self-Knowing Consciousness, ed. Herbert S. Terrace and Janet Metcalfe (Oxford:Oxford University Press), 3–56; Mariam Naqshbandi and William A. Roberts, ‘Anticipation of Future Events in Squirrel Monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) and Rats (Rattus norvegicus):Tests of the Bischof-Kohler Hypothesis’,Journal of Orgparative Psychology120:4 (2006), 345–57.

    16. I. B. A. Bartal, J. Decety and P. Mason, ‘Empathy and Pro-Social Behavior in Rats’,Science334:6061 (2011), 1427–30;Gregg,Are Dolphins Really Smart?, 89.

    17. Karl Krall,Denkende Tiere: Beitr最攀 zur Tierseelenkunde auf Grund eigener Versuche (Leipzig: F. Engelmann, 1912).

    18. Christopher B. Ruff, Erik Trinkaus and Trenton W. Holliday, ‘Body Mass and Encephalization in PleistoceneHomo’,Nature 387:6629 (1997), 173–6; Maciej Henneberg and Maryna Steyn, ‘Trends in Cranial Capacity and Cranial Index in Subsaharan Africa During the Holocene’,American Journal of Human Biology5:4 (1993), 473–9; Drew H. Bailey and David C. Geary, ‘Hominid Brain Evolution:Testing Climatic, Ecological, and Social Orgpetition Models’,Human Nature20:1 (2009), 67–79; Daniel J. Wescott and Richard L. Jantz, ‘Assessing Craniofacial Secular Change in American Blacks and Whites Using Geometric Morphometry’, inModern Morphometrics in Physical Anthropology:Developments in Primatology:Progress and Prospects, ed. Dennis E. Slice (New York:Plenum Publishers, 2005), 231–45.

    19. See also Edward O. Wilson,The Social Conquest of the Earth(New York:Liveright, 2012).

    20. Cyril Edwin Black, ed.,The Transformation of Russian Society:Aspects of Social Change since 1861(Cambridge, MA:Harvard University Press, 1970), 279.

    21. Tom Gallagher,Theft of a Nation:Romania since Orgmunism(London:Hurst, 2005).

    22. Robin Dunbar,Grooming, Gossip, and the Evolution of Language(Cambridge, MA:Harvard University Press, 1998).

    23. TVP University, ‘Capuchin monkeys reject unequal pay’, 15 December 2012, accessed 21 December 2014, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lKhAd0Tyny0.

    24. Quoted in Christopher Duffy,Military Experience in the Age of Reason (London:Routledge, 2005), 98–9.

    25. Serhii Ploghy,The Last Empire:The Final Days of the Soviet Union(London:Oneworld, 2014), 309.

    26. ‘RIAN archive 848095 Signing the Agreement to eliminate the USSR and establish the Orgmonwealth of Independent States’ by RIA Novosti archive, image #848095 / U. Ivanov / CC-BY-SA 3.0.Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Orgmons,
.

    第4章

    1. Fekri A. Hassan, ‘Holocene Lakes and Prehistoric Settlements of the Western Fayum, Egypt’,Journal of Archaeological Science 13:5 (1986), 393–504; Gunther Garbrecht, ‘Water Storage (Lake Moeris) in the Fayum Depression, Legend or Reality?’,Irrigation and Drainage Systems1:3 (1987), 143–57; Gunther Garbrecht, ‘Historical Water Storage for Irrigation in the Fayum Depression (Egypt)’,Irrigation and Drainage Systems10:1 (1996), 47–76.

    2. Yehuda Bauer,A History of the Holocaust(Danbur:Franklin Watts, 2001), 249.

    3. Jean C. Oi,State and Peasant in Contemporary China:The Political Economy of Village Government(Berkeley:University of California Press, 1989), 91; Jasper Becker,Hungry Ghosts:China’s Secret Famine (London:John Murray, 1996); Frank Dikkoter,Mao’s Great Famine:The History of China’s Most Devastating Catastrophe, 1958–62(London:Bloomsbury, 2010).

    4. Martin Meredith,The Fate of Africa:From the Hopes of Freedom to the Heart of Despair:A History of Fifty Years of Independence(New York:Public Affairs, 2006); Sven Rydenfelt, ‘Lessons from Socialist Tanzania’,The Freeman36:9 (1986); David Blair, ‘Africa in a Nutshell’,Telegraph, 10 May 2006, accessed 22 December 2014, http://blogs.telegraph.co.uk/news/davidblair/3631941/Africa_in_a_nutshell/.

    5. Roland Anthony Oliver,Africa since 1800, 5th edn (Cambridge:Cambridge University Press, 2005), 100–23; David van Reybrouck,Congo:The Epic History of a People(New York:HarperCollins, 2014), 58–9.

    6. Ben Wilbrink, ‘Assessment in Historical Perspective’,Studies in Educational Evaluation23:1 (1997), 31–48.

    7. M. C. Lemon,Philosophy of History(London and New York:Routledge, 2003), 28–44; Siep Stuurman, ‘Herodotus and Sima Qian:History and the Anthropological Turn in Ancient Greece and Han China’,Journal of World History19:1 (2008), 1–40.

    8. William Kelly Simpson,The Literature of Ancient Egypt(Yale:Yale University Press, 1973), 332–3.

    第5章

    1. C. Scott Dixon,Protestants:A History from Wittenberg to Pennsylvania, 1517–1740(Chichester, UK:Wiley-Blackwell, 2010), 15; Peter W. Williams,America’s Religions:From Their Origins to the Twenty-First Century(Urbana:University of Illinois Press, 2008), 82.

    2.Antichrist1by Lucas Cranach the Elder.Original uploader was Epiphyllumlover at en.wikipedia – transferred from en.wikipedia (Original text:Google Books).Licensed under Public Domain via Orgmons,


    3. Glenn Hausfater and Sarah Blaffer, ed.,Infanticide:Orgparative and Evolutionary Perspectives(New York:Aldine, 1984), 449; Valeria Alia,Names and Nunavut:Culture and Identity in the Inuit Homeland(New York:Berghahn Books, 2007), 23; Lewis Petrinovich,Human Evolution, Reproduction and Morality(Cambridge, MA:MIT Press, 1998), 256; Richard A. Posner,Sex and Reason(Cambridge, MA:Harvard University Press, 1992), 289.

    4. Ronald K. Delph, ‘Valla Grammaticus, Agostino Steuco, and the Donation of Constantine’,Journal of the History of Ideas57:1 (1996), 55–77; Joseph M. Levine, ‘Reginald Pecock and Lorenzo Valla on the Donation of Constantine’,Studies in the Renaissance20 (1973), 118–43.

    5. Gabriele Boccaccini,Roots of Rabbinic Judaism(Cambridge: Eerdmans, 2002); Shaye J. D. Cohen,From the Maccabees to the Mishnah, 2nd edn (Louisville:Westminster John Knox Press, 2006), 153–7; Lee M. McDonald and James A. Sanders, ed.,The Canon Debate(Peabody:Hendrickson, 2002), 4.

    6. Sam Harris,The Moral Landscape:How Science Can Determine Human Values(New York:Free Press, 2010).

    第6章

    1. Gerald S. Wilkinson, ‘The Social Organization of the Orgmon Vampire Bat II’,Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology17:2 (1985), 123–34; Gerald S. Wilkinson, ‘Reciprocal Food Sharing in the Vampire Bat’,Nature308:5955 (1984), 181–4; Raul Flores Crespo et al., ‘Foraging Behavior of the Orgmon Vampire Bat Related to Moonlight’,Journal of Mammalogy53:2 (1972), 366–8.

    2. Goh Chin Lian, ‘Admin Service Pay:Pensions Removed, National Bonus to Replace GDP Bonus’,Straits Times, 8 April 2013, retrieved 9 February 2016, http://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/admin-service-pay-pensions-removed-nationalbonus-to-replace-gdp-bonus.

    3. Edward Wong, ‘In China, Breathing Becomes a Childhood Risk’,New York Times, 22 April 2013, accessed 22 December 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/04/23/world/asia/pollution-is-radically-changing-childhood-in-chinascities.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0; Barbara Demick, ‘China Entrepreneurs Cash in on Air Pollution’,Los Angeles Times, 2 February 2013, accessed 22 December 2014, http://articles.latimes.com/2013/feb/02/world/la-fg-china-pollution-20130203.

    4. IPCC,Climate Change 2014:Mitigation of Climate Change – Summery for Policymakers, Ottmar Edenhofer et al., ed., (Cambridge and New York:Cambridge University Press, 2014), 6.

    5. UNEP,The Emissions Gap Report 2012(Nairobi:UNEP, 2012); IEA,Energy Policies of IEA Countries:The United States(Paris:IEA, 2008).

    6. For a detailed discussion see Ha-Joon Chang,23 Things They Don’t Tell You About Capitalism(New York:Bloomsbury Press, 2010).

    第7章

    1. Jean-Jacques Rousseau,洀椀氀攀, ou de l’éducation(Paris, 1967), 348.

    2. ‘Journalists Syndicate Says Charlie Hebdo Cartoons“Hurt Feelings”, Washington Okays’,Egypt Independent, 14 January 2015, accessed 12 August 2015, http://www.egyptindependent.com/news/journalists-syndicate-says-charliehebdo-cartoons-per centE2per cent80per cent98hurt-feelings-washington-okays.

    3. Naomi Darom, ‘Evolution on Steroids’,Haaretz, 13 June 2014 .

    4. Walter Horace Bruford,The German Tradition of Self-Cultiva- tion: ‘Bildung’ from Humboldt to Thomas Mann(London, New York:Cambridge University Press, 1975), 24, 25.

    5. ‘All-Time 100 TV Shows:Survivor’,Time, 6 September 2007, retrieved 12 August 2015, http://time.com/3103831/survivor/.

    6. Phil Klay,Redeployment(London:Canongate, 2015), 170.

    7. Yuval Noah Harari,The Ultimate Experience:Battlefield Revelations and the Making of Modern War Culture, 1450–2000(Houndmills:Palgrave Macmillan, 2008); Yuval Noah Harari, ‘Armchairs, Coffee and Authority:Eye-witnesses and Flesh-witnesses Speak about War, 1100–2000’,Journal of Military History74:1 (January 2010), 53–78.

    8. ‘Angela Merkel Attacked over Crying Refugee Girl’, BBC, 17 July 2015, accessed 12 August 2015, http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-33555619.

    9. Laurence Housman,War Letters of Fallen Englishm en (Philadelphia:University of Pennsylvania State, 2002), 159.

    10. Mark Bowden,Black Hawk Down:The Story of Modern Warfare (New York:New American Library, 2001), 301–2.

    11. Adolf Hitler,Mein Kampf, trans.Ralph Manheim (Boston:Houghton Mifflin, 1943), 165.

    12. Evan Osnos,Age of Ambition:Chasing Fortune, Truth and Faith in the New China(London:Vintage, 2014), 95.

    13. Mark Harrison, ed.,The Economics of World War II:Six Great Powers in International Orgparison(Cambridge:Cambridge University Press, 1998), 3–10; John Ellis,World War II:A Statistical Survey(New York:Facts on File, 1993); I. C. B Dear, ed.,The Oxford Orgpanion to the Second World War(Oxford:Oxford University Press, 1995).

    14. ‘Saigon-hubert-van-es’ by Source.Licensed under fair use via Wikipedia,
.

    15. Donna Haraway, ‘A Cyborg Manifesto:Science, Technology, and SocialistFeminism in the Late Twentieth Century’, inSimians, Cyborgs and Women:The Reinvention of Nature, ed. Donna Haraway (New York:Routledge, 1991), 149–81.

    第8章

    1.详细讨论请见Michael S. Gazzaniga,Who’s in Charge?: Free Will and the Science of the Brain(New York:Ecco, 2011).

    2. Chun Siong Soon et al., ‘Unconscious Determinants of Free Decisions in the Human Brain’,Nature Neuroscience11:5 (2008), 543–5.See also Daniel Wegner,The Illusion of Conscious Will(Cambridge, MA:MIT Press, 2002); Benjamin Libet, ‘Unconscious Cerebral Initiative and the Role of Conscious Will in Voluntary Action’,Behavioral and Brain Sciences8 (1985), 529–66.

    3. Sanjiv K. Talwar et al., ‘Rat Navigation Guided by Remote Control’,Nature417:6884 (2002), 37–8; Ben Harder, ‘Scientists“Drive”Rats by Remote Control’,National Geographic, 1 May 2012, accessed 22 December 2014, http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2002/05/0501_020501_roborats.html; Tom Clarke, ‘Here Orge the Ratbots:Desire Drives Remote-Controlled Rodents’,Nature, 2 May 2002, accessed 22 December 2014, http://www.nature.com/news/1998/020429/full/news020429–9.html; Duncan Graham-Rowe, ‘“Robo-rat”Controlled by Brain Electrodes’,New Scientist, 1 May 2002, accessed 22 December 2014, http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn2237–roborat-controlled-by-brain-electrodes.html#.UwOPiNrNtkQ.

    4. http://fusion.net/story/204316/darpa-is-implanting-chips-in-soldiers-brains/; http://www.theverge.com/2014/5/28/5758018/darpa-teams-begin-work-on-tinybrain-implant-to-treat-ptsd.

    5. Smadar Reisfeld, ‘Outside of the Cuckoo’s Nest’,Haaretz, 6 March 2015.

    6. Dan Hurley, ‘US Military Leads Quest for Futuristic Ways to Boost IQ’,Newsweek, 5 March 2014, http://www.newsweek.com/2014/03/14/us-militaryleads-quest-futuristic-ways-boost-iq-247945.html, accessed 9 January 2015; Human Effectiveness Directorate, http://www.wpafb.af.mil/afrl/rh/index.asp; R. Andy McKinley et al., ‘Acceleration of Image Analyst Training with Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation’,Behavioral Neuroscience127:6 (2013):936–46; Jeremy T. Nelson et al., ‘Enhancing Vigilance in Operators with Prefrontal Cortex Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (TDCS)’,NeuroImage85 (2014):909–17; Melissa Scheldrup et al., ‘Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Facilities Cognitive Multi-Task Performance Differentially Depending on Anode Location and Subtask’,Frontiers in Human Neuroscience8 (2014); Oliver Burkeman, ‘Can I Increase my Brain Power?’,Guardian, 4 January 2014, http://www.theguardian.com/science/2014/jan/04/can-i-increase-my-brain-power, accessed 9 January 2016; Heather Kelly, ‘Wearable Tech to Hack Your Brain’, CNN, 23 October 2014, http://www.cnn.com/2014/10/22/tech/innovation/brain-stimulation-tech/. accessed 9 January 2016.

    7. Sally Adee, ‘Zap Your Brain into the Zone:Fast Track to Pure Focus’,New Scientist, 6 February 2012, accessed 22 December 2014, http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg21328501.600–zap-your-brain-into-the-zone-fasttrack-to-pure-focus.html.同时参见:R. Douglas Fields, ‘Amping Up Brain Function:Transcranial Stimulation Shows Promise in Speeding Up Learning’,Scientific American, 25 November 2011, accessed 22 December 2014, http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/amping-up-brain-function.

    8. Sally Adee, ‘How Electrical Brain Stimulation Can Change the Way We Think’,The Week, 30 March 2012, accessed 22 December 2014, http://theweek.com/article/index/226196/how-electrical-brain-stimulation-can-change-the-waywe-think/2.

    9. E. Bianconi et al., ‘An Estimation of the Number of Cells in the Human Body,’Annals of Human Biology40:6 (2013):463–71.

    10. Oliver Sacks,The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat(London:Picador, 1985), 73–5.

    11. Joseph E. LeDoux, Donald H. Wilson, Michael S. Gazzaniga, ‘A Divided Mind:Observations on the Conscious Properties of the Separated Hemispheres’,Annals of Neurology2:5 (1977), 417–21.同时参见:D. Galin, ‘Implications for Psychiatry of Left and Right Cerebral Specialization:A Neurophysiological Context for Unconscious Processes’,Archives of General Psychiatry, 31:4 (1974), 572–83; R. W. Sperry, M. S. Gazzaniga and J. E. Bogen, ‘Interhemispheric relationships:The Neocortical Orgmisures:Syndromes of Hemisphere Disconnection’, inHandbook of Clinical Neurology, ed. P. J. Vinken and G. W. Bruyn (Amsterdam:North Holland Publishing Co., 1969), vol. 4.

    12. Michael S. Gazzaniga,The Bisected Brain (New York:Appleton-CenturyCrofts, 1970); Gazzaniga,Who’s in Charge?; Carl Senior, Tamara Russell, and Michael S. Gazzaniga,Methods in Mind (Cambridge, MA:MIT Press, 2006); David Wolman, ‘The Split Brain:A Tale of Two Halves’,Nature483 (14 March 2012):260–3.

    13. Galin, ‘Implications for Psychiatry of Left and Right Cerebral Specialization’, 573–4.

    14. Springer and Deutsch,Left Brain, Right Brain, 3rd edn (New York:W. H. Freeman, 1989), 32–6.

    15. Kahneman,Thinking, Fast and Slow, 377–410.同时参见Gazzaniga,Who’s in Charge?, ch. 3.

    16. Eran Chajut et al., ‘In Pain Thou Shalt Bring Forth Children:The Peak-andEnd Rule in Recall of Labor Pain’,Psychological Science25:12 (2014), 2266–71.

    17. Ulla Waldenstr洀, ‘Women’s Memory of Childbirth at Two Months and One Year after the Birth’,Birth30:4 (2003), 248–54; Ulla Waldenstr洀, ‘Why Do Some Women Change Their Opinion about Childbirth over Time?’,Birth31:2 (2004), 102–7.

    18. Gazzaniga,Who’s in Charge?, ch. 3.

    19. Jorge Luis Borges,Collected Fictions, translated by Andrew Hurley (New York:Penguin Books, 1999), 308–9.西班牙版本请见:Jorge Luis Borges, ‘Un problema’, inObras completas, vol. 3 (Buenos Aires:Emece Editores, 1968–9), 29–30.

    20. Mark Thompson,The White War: Life and Death on the Italian Front, 1915-1919 (New York:Basic Books, 2009).

    第9章

    1. F. M. Anderson, ed.,The Constitutions and Other Select Documents Illustrative of the History of France:1789–1907, 2nd edn (Minneapolis:H. W. Wilson, 1908), 184–5; Alan Forrest, ‘L’armée de l’an II: la levée en masse et la créa tion d’un m y t he ré pu b li cain’,A n na le s hi s to ri que s de la Révo lu tion f ran cai s335 (2004), 111–30.

    2. Morris Edmund Spears, ed.,World War Issues and Ideals:Readings in Contemporary History and Literature (Boston and New York:Ginn and Orgpany, 1918), 242.还有一项最重要的近期研究,得到正反双方的一致广泛引用,也尝试证明民主体制的士兵战斗力较强:Dan Reiter and Allan C. Stam,Democracies at War(Princeton:Princeton University Press, 2002).

    3. Doris Stevens,Jailed for Freedom(New York:Boni and Liveright, 1920), 290.同时参见Susan R. Grayzel, Women and the First World War (Harlow:Longman, 2002), 101–6; Christine Bolt,The Women’s Movements in the United States and Britain from the 1790s to the 1920s(Amherst:University of Massachusetts Press, 1993), 236–76; Birgitta Bader-Zaar, ‘Women’s Suffrage and War:World War I and Political Reform in a Orgparative Perspective’, inSuffrage, Gender and Citizenship:International Perspectives on Parliamentary Reforms, ed. Irma Sulkunen, Seija-Leena Nevala-Nurmi and Pirjo Markkola (Newcastle upon Tyne:Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2009), 193–218.

    4. Matt Richtel and Conor Dougherty, ‘Google’s Driverless Cars Run Into Problem:Cars With Drivers’,New York Times, 1 September 2015, accessed 2 September 2015, http://www.nytimes.com/2015/09/02/technology/personaltech/google-says-its-not-the-driverless-cars-fault-its-other-drivers.html?_r=1; Shawn DuBravac,Digital Destiny:How the New Age of Data Will Transform the Way We Work, Live and Orgmunicate (Washington DC:Regnery Publishing, 2015), 127–56.

    5. Bradley Hope, ‘Lawsuit Against Exchanges Over“Unfair Advantage”for High-Frequency Traders Dismissed’,Wall Street Journal,29 April 2015, accessed 6 October 2015, http://www.wsj.com/articles/lawsuit-against-exchanges-over-unfair-advantage-for-high-frequency-traders-dismissed-1430326045; David Levine, ‘High-Frequency Trading Machines Favored Over Humans by CME Group, Lawsuit Claims’,Huffington Post, 26 June 2012, accessed 6 October 2015, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/06/26/high-frequency-trading-lawsuit_n_1625648.html; Lu Wang, Whitney Kisling and Eric Lam, ‘Fake Post Erasing $136 Billion Shows Markets Need Humans’, Bloomberg, 23 April 2013, accessed 22 December 2014, http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2013–04–23/fake-reporterasing-136–billion-shows-market-s-fragility.html; Matthew Philips, ‘How the Robots Lost:High-Frequency Trading’s Rise and Fall’,Bloomberg Businessweek, 6 June 2013, accessed 22 December 2014, http://www.businessweek.com/printer/articles/123468–how-the-robots-lost-high-frequency-tradings-rise-and-fall; Steiner,Automate This, 2–5, 11–52; Luke Dormehl,The Formula:How Algorithms Solve All Our Problems – And Create More (London:Penguin, 2014), 223.

    6. Jordan Weissmann, ‘iLawyer:What Happens when Orgputers Replace Attorneys?’,Atlantic, 19 June 2012, accessed 22 December 2014, http://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2012/06/ilawyer-what-happens-when-computersreplace-attorneys/258688; John Markoff, ‘Armies of Expensive Lawyers, Replaced by Cheaper Software’,New York Times, 4 March 2011, accessed 22 December 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/05/science/05legal.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0; Adi Narayan, ‘The fMRI Brain Scan:A Better Lie Detector?’,Time, 20 July 2009, accessed 22 December 2014, http://content.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,1911546–2,00.html; Elena Rusconi and Timothy Mitchener-Nissen, ‘Prospects of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging as Lie Detector’,Frontiers in Human Neuroscience7:54 (2013); Steiner,Automate This,217; Dormehl,The Formula, 229.

    7. B. P. Woolf,Building Intelligent Interactive Tutors:Student-centered Strategies for Revolutionizing E-learning (Burlington:Morgan Kaufmann, 2010); Annie Murphy Paul, ‘The Machines are Taking Over’,New York Times, 14 September 2012, accessed 22 December 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2012/09/16/magazine/how-computerized-tutors-are-learning-to-teach-humans.html?_r=0;P. J. Munoz-Merino, C. D. Kloos and M. Munoz-Organero, ‘Enhancement of Student Learning Through the Use of a Hinting Orgputer e-Learning System and Orgparison With Human Teachers’,IEEE Transactions on Education54:1 (2011), 164–7;Mindojo, accessed 14 July 2015, http://mindojo.com/.

    8. Steiner,Automate This, 146–62; Ian Steadman, ‘IBM’s Watson Is Better at Diagnosing Cancer than Human Doctors’,Wired, 11 February 2013, accessed 22 December 2014, http://www.wired.co.uk/news/archive/2013–02/11/ibmwatson-medical-doctor; ‘Watson Is Helping Doctors Fight Cancer’, IBM, accessed 22 December 2014, http://www-03.ibm.com/innovation/us/watson/watson_in_healthcare.shtml; Vinod Khosla, ‘Technology Will Replace 80 per cent of What Doctors Do’,Fortune, 4 December 2012, accessed 22 December 2014, http://tech.fortune.cnn.com/2012/12/04/technology-doctors-khosla; Ezra Klein, ‘How Robots Will Replace Doctors’,Washington Post, 10 January 2011, accessed 22 December 2014, http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/wonkblog/post/how-robots-willreplace-doctors/2011/08/25/gIQASA17AL_blog.html.

    9. Tzezana,The Guide to the Future, 62–4.

    10. Steiner,Automate This, 155.

    11. http://www.mattersight.com.

    12. Steiner,Automate This, 178–82; Dormehl,The Formula, 21–4; Shana Lebowitz, ‘Every Time You Dial into These Call Centers, Your Personality Is Being Silently Assessed’,Business Insider, 3 September 2015, retrieved 31 January 2016, http://www.businessinsider.com/how-mattersight-uses-personality-science-2015-9.

    13. Rebecca Morelle, ‘Google Machine Learns to Master Video Games’, BBC, 25 February 2015, accessed 12 August 2015, http://www.bbc.com/news/scienceenvironment-31623427; Elizabeth Lopatto, ‘Google’s AI Can Learn to Play Video Games’,The Verge, 25 February 2015, accessed 12 August 2015, http://www.theverge.com/2015/2/25/8108399/google-ai-deepmind-video-games; Volodymyr Mnih et al., ‘Human-Level Control through Deep Reinforcement Learning’,Nature, 26 February 2015, accessed 12 August 2015, http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v518/n7540/full/nature14236.html

    14. Michael Lewis,Moneyball:The Art of Winning An Unfair Game(New York:W. W. Norton, 2003).同时参见2011年的电影《点球成金》(Moneyball),由贝尼特·米勒(Bennett Miller)执导,布拉德·皮特饰演比恩。

    15. Frank Levy and Richard Murnane,The New Division of Labor:How Orgputers are Creating the Next Job Market(Princeton:Princeton University Press, 2004); Dormehl,The Formula, 225–6.

    16. Tom Simonite, ‘When Your Boss is an Uber Algoritm’,MIT Technology Review, 1 December 2015, retrieved 4 February 2016, https://www.technologyreview.com/s/543946/when-your-boss-is-an-uber-algorithm/.

    17. Simon Sharwood, ‘Software“Appointed to Board”of Venture Capital Firm’,The Register, 18 May 2014, accessed 12 August 2015, http://www.theregister.co.uk/2014/05/18/software_appointed_to_board_of_venture_capital_firm/; John Bates, ‘I’m the Chairman of the Board’,Huffington Post, 6 April 2014, accessed 12 August 2015, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/john-bates/im-the-chairman-ofthe-bo_b_5440591.html; Colm Gorey, ‘I’m Afraid I Can’t Invest in That, Dave:AI Appointed to VC Funding Board’,Silicon Republic, 15 May 2014, accessed 12 August 2015, https://www.siliconrepublic.com/discovery/2014/05/15/im-afraid-icant-invest-in-that-dave-ai-appointed-to-vc-funding-board.

    18. Steiner,Automate This, 89–101; D. H. Cope,Orges the Fiery Night:2,000 Haiku by Man and Machine(Santa Cruz:Create Space, 2011).同时参见:Dormehl,The Formula, 174–80, 195–8, 200–2, 216–20; Steiner,Automate This, 75–89.

    19. Carl Benedikt Frey and Michael A. Osborne, ‘The Future of Employment:How Susceptible Are Jobs to Orgputerisation?’, 17 September 2013, accessed 12 August 2015, http://www.oxfordmartin.ox.ac.uk/downloads/academic/The_Future_of_Employment.pdf.

    20. E. Brynjolfsson and A. McAffee,Race Againt the Machine:How the Digital Revolution is Accelerating Innovation, Driving Productivity, and Irreversibly Transforming Employment and the Economy(Lexington:Digital Frontier Press, 2011).

    21. Nick Bostrom,Superintelligence:Paths, Dangers, Strategies(Oxford:Oxford University Press, 2014).

    22. Ido Efrati, ‘Researchers Conducted a Successful Experiment with an“Artificial Pancreas”Connected to an iPhone’ [in Hebrew],Haaretz, 17 June 2014, accessed 23 December 2014, http://www.haaretz.co.il/news/health/1.2350956 .MoshePhillip et al., ‘Nocturnal.Glucose Control with an Artificial Pancreas at a Diabetis Camp’,New England Journal of Medicine368:9 (2013), 824–33; ‘Artificial Pancreas Controlled by iPhone Shows Promise in Diabetes Trial’,Today, 17 June 2014, accessed 22 December 2014, http://www.todayonline.com/world/artificialpancreas-controlled-iphone-shows-promise-diabetes-trial?singlepage=true

    23. Dormehl,The Formula, 7–16.

    24. Martha Mendoza, ‘Google Develops Contact Lens Glucose Monitor’, Yahoo News, 17 January 2014, accessed 12 August 2015, http://news.yahoo.com/google-develops-contact-lens-glucose-monitor-000147894.html; Mark Scott, ‘Novartis Joins with Google to Develop Contact Lens That Monitors Blood Sugar’,New York Times, 15 July 2014, accessed 12 August 2015, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/07/16/business/international/novartis-joins-with-google-to-developcontact-lens-to-monitor-blood-sugar.html?_r=0; Rachel Barclay, ‘Google Scientists Create Contact Lens to Measure Blood Sugar Level in Tears’, Healthline, 23 January 2014, accessed 12 August 2015, http://www.healthline.com/health-news/diabetes-google-develops-glucose-monitoring-contact-lens-012314.

    25.‘Quantified Self’, http://quantifiedself.com/; Dormehl,The Formula, 11–16.

    26. Dormehl,The Formula, 91–5; ‘Bedpost’, http://bedposted.com.

    27. Dormehl,The Formula, 53–9.

    28. Angelina Jolie, ‘My Medical Choice’,New York Times, 14 May 2013, accessed 22 December 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/14/opinion/mymedical-choice.html.

    29. ‘Google Flu Trends’, http://www.google.org/flutrends/about/how.html; Jeremy Ginsberg et al., ‘Detecting Influenza Epidemics Using Search Engine Query Data’,Nature, 457:7232 (2008), 1012–14; Declan Butler, ‘When Google Got Flu Wrong’,Nature, 13 February 2013, accessed 22 December 2014, http://www.nature.com/news/when-google-got-flu-wrong-1.12413; Miguel Helft, ‘Google Uses Searches to Track Flu’s Spread’, New York Times, 11 November 2008, accessed 22 December 2014, http://msl1.mit.edu/furdlog/docs/nytimes/2008–11–11_nytimes_google_influenza.pdf; Samanth Cook et al., ‘Assessing Google Flu Trends Performance in the United States during the 2009 Influenza Virus A (H1N1) Pandemic’,PLOS One, 19 August 2011, accessed 22 December 2014, http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0023610; Jeffrey Shaman et al., ‘Real-Time Inluenza Forecasts during the 2012–2013 Season’,Nature, 23 April 2013, accessed 24 December 2014, http://www.nature.com/ncomms/2013/131203/ncomms3837/full/ncomms3837.html.

    30. Alistair Barr, ‘Google’s New Moonshot Project:The Human Body’,Wall Street Journal, 24 July 2014, accessed 22 December 2014, http://www.wsj.com/articles/google-to-collect-data-to-define-healthy-human-1406246214; Nick Summers, ‘Google Announces Google Fit Platform Preview for Developers’, Next Web, 25 June 2014, accessed 22 December 2014, http://thenextweb.com/insider/2014/06/25/google-launches-google-fit-platform-preview-developers/.

    31. Dormehl,The Formula, 72–80.

    32. Wu Youyou, Michal Kosinski and David Stillwell, ‘Orgputer-Based Personality Judgements Are More Accurate Than Those Made by Humans’,PNAS112:4 (2015), 1036–40.

    33.关于先知、代理人和君主的概念,参见:Bostrom,Superintelligence.

    34. https://www.waze.com/.

    35. Dormehl,The Formula, 206.

    36. World Bank,World Development Indicators 2012(Washington DC:World Bank, 2012), 72, http://data.worldbank.org/sites/default/files/wdi-2012–ebook.pdf.

    37. Larry Elliott, ‘Richest 62 People as Wealthy as Half of World’s Population, Says Oxfam’,Guardian, 18 January 2016, retrieved 9 February 2016, http://www.theguardian.com/business/2016/jan/18/richest-62-billionaires-wealthy-half-worldpopulation-combined; Tami Luhby, ‘The 62 Richest People Have As Much Wealth As Half the World’,CNN Money, 18 January 2016, retrieved 9 February 2016, http://money.cnn.com/2016/01/17/news/economy/oxfam-wealth/.

    第10章

    1. ‘EM spectrum’.Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Orgmons, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:EM_spectrum.svg#/media/File:EM_spectrum.svg

    2. Joseph Henrich, Steven J. Heine and Ara Norenzayan, ‘The Weirdest People in the World’,Behavioral and Brain Sciences33 (2010), 61–135.

    3. Benny Shanon,Antipodes of the Mind:Charting the Phenome- nology of the Ayahuasca Experience(Oxford:Oxford University Press, 2002).

    4. Thomas Nagel, ‘What Is It Like to Be a Bat?’,Philosophical Review83:4 (1974), 435–50.

    5. Michael J. Noad et al., ‘Cultural Revolution in Whale Songs’,Nature408:6812 (2000), 537; Nina Eriksen et al., ‘Cultural Change in the Songs of Humpback Whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) from Tonga’,Behavior142:3 (2005), 305–28; E. C. M. Parsons, A. J. Wright and M. A. Gore, ‘The Nature of Humpback Whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) Song’,Journal of Marine Animals and Their Ecology1:1 (2008), 22–31.

    6. C. Bushdid et al., ‘Human can Discriminate More than 1 Trillion Olfactory Stimuli’,Science343:6177 (2014),1370–2; Peter A. Brennan and Frank Zufall, ‘Pheromonal Orgmunication in Vertebrates’,Nature444:7117 (2006), 308–15; Jianzhi Zhang and David M. Webb, ‘Evolutionary Deterioration of the Vomeronasal Pheromone Transduction Pathway in Catarrhine Primates’,Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences100:14 (2003), 8337–41; Bettina Beer, ‘Smell, Person, Space and Memory’,Experiencing New Worlds, ed. Jurg Wassmann and Kathrina Stockhaus (New York:Berghahn Books, 2007), 187–200; Niclas Burenhult and Majid Asifa, ‘Olfaction in Aslian Ideology and Language’,Sense and Society6:1 (2011), 19–29; Constance Classen, David Howes and Anthony Synnott,Aroma:The Cultural History of Smell(London:Routledge, 1994); Amy Pei-jung Lee, ‘Reduplication and Odor in Four Formosan Languages’,Language and Linguistics 11:1 (2010):99–126;Walter E. A. van Beek, ‘The Dirty Smith:Smell as a Social Frontier among the Kapsiki/Higi of North Cameroon and North-Eastern Nigeria’,Africa62:1 (1992), 38–58; Ewelina Wnuk and Asifa Majid, ‘Revisiting the Limits of Language:The Odor Lexicon of Maniq’,Cognition131 (2014), 125–38.

    然而,有些学者认为人类之所以失去强大的嗅觉能力,是因为某些更古老的进化过程。参见:Yoav Gilad et al., ‘Human Specific Loss of Olfactory Receptor Genes’,Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences100:6 (2003), 3324–7; Atushi Matsui, Yasuhiro Go and Yoshihito Niimura, ‘Degeneration of Olfactory Receptor Gene Repertories in Primates:No Direct Link to Full Trichromatic Vision’,Molecular Biology and Evolution27:5 (2010), 1192–200; Graham M. Hughes, Emma C. Teeling and Desmond G. Higgins,“Loss of Olfactory Receptor Function in Hominin Evolution”,PLOS One9:1 (2014), e84714.

    7. Matthew Crawford,The World Beyond Your Head:How to Flourish in an Age of Distraction(London:Viking, 2015).

    8. Turnbull and Solms,TheBrain and the Inner World, 136–59; Kelly Bulkeley,Visions of the Night:Dreams, Religion and Psychology(New York:State University of New York Press, 1999); Andreas Mavrematis,Hypnogogia:The Unique State of Consciousness Between Wakefulness and Sleep(London:Routledge, 1987); Brigitte Holzinger, Stephen LaBerge and Lynn Levitan, ‘Psychophysiological Correlates of Lucid Dreaming’,American Psychological Association16:2 (2006):88–95; Watanabe Tsuneo, ‘Lucid Dreaming:Its Experimental Proof and Psychological Conditions’,Journal of International Society of Life Information Science21:1 (2003):159–62; Victor I. Spoormaker and Jan van den Bout, ‘Lucid Dreaming Treatment for Nightmares:A Pilot Study’,Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics75:6 (2006):389–94.

    第11章

    1.例如参见:Kevin Kelly,What Technology Wants(New York: Viking Press, 2010); César Hidalgo,Why Information Grows:The Evolution of Order, From Atoms to Economies(New York:Basic Books, 2015); Howard Bloom,Global Brain:The Evolution of Mass Mind from the Big Bang to the 21st Century(Hoboken:Wiley, 2001); DuBravac,Digital Destiny.

    2. Friedrich Hayek, ‘The Use of Knowledge in Society,’American Economic Review35:4 (1945):519–30.

    3. Kiyohiko G. Nishimura,Imperfect Orgpetition Differential Information and the Macro-foundations of Macro-economy (Oxford:Oxford University Press, 1992); Frank M. Machovec,Perfect Orgpetition and the Transformation of Economics(London:Routledge, 2002); Frank V. Mastrianna,Basic Economics, 16th edn (Mason:South-Western, 2010), 78–89; Zhiwu Chen, ‘Freedom of Information and the Economic Future of Hong Kong’,Hong Kong Centre for Economic Research74 (2003); Randall Morck, Bernard Yeung and Wayne Yu, ‘The Information Content of Stock Markets:Why Do Emerging Markets Have Synchronous Stock Price Movements?’,Journal of Financial Economics58:1 (2000), 215–60; Louis H. Ederington and Jae Ha Lee, ‘How Markets Process Information:News Releases and Volatility’,Journal of Finance48:4 (1993), 1161–91; Mark L. Mitchell and J. Harold Mulherin, ‘The Impact of Public Information on the Stock Market’,Journal of Finance49:3 (1994):923–50; Jean-Jacques Laffont and Eric S. Maskin, ‘The Efficient Market Hypothesis and Insider Trading on the Stock Market’,Journal of Political Economy98:1 (1990), 70–93; Steven R. Salbu, ‘Differentiated Perspectives on Insider Trading:The Effect of Paradigm Selection on Policy’,St John’s Law Review66:2 (1992), 373–405.

    4. Valery N. Soyfer, ‘New Light on the Lysenko Era’,Nature339:6224 (1989), 415–20; Nils Roll-Hansen, ‘Wishful Science:The Persistence of T. D. Lysenko’s Agrobiology in the Politics of Science’,Osiris23:1 (2008), 166–88.

    5. William H. McNeill and J. R. McNeill,The Human Web:A Bird’s-Eye View of World History (New York:W. W. Norton, 2003).

    6. Aaron Swartz, ‘Guerilla Open Access Manifesto’, July 2008, accessed 22 December 2014, https://ia700808.us.archive.org/17/items/GuerillaOpenAccessManifesto/Goamjuly2008.pdf; Sam Gustin, ‘Aaron Swartz, Tech Prodigy and Internet Activist, Is Dead at 26’,Time, 13 January 2013, accessed 22 December 2014, http://business.time.com/2013/01/13/tech-prodigy-and-internetactivist-aaron-swartz-commits-suicide; Todd Leopold, ‘How Aaron Swartz Helped Build the Internet’, CNN, 15 January 2013, 22 December 2014, http://edition.cnn.com/2013/01/15/tech/web/aaron-swartz-internet/; Declan McCullagh, ‘Swartz Didn’t Face Prison until Feds Took Over Case, Report Says’, CNET, 25 January 2013, accessed 22 December 2014, http://news.cnet.com/8301–13578_3–57565927–38/swartz-didnt-face-prison-until-feds-took-over-case-report-says/.

    7. John Sousanis, ‘World Vehicle Population Tops 1 Billion Units’,Wardsauto, 15 August 2011, accessed 3 December 2015, http://wardsauto.com/news-analysis/world-vehicle-population-tops-1-billion-units.

    8. ‘No More Woof’, https://www.indiegogo.com/projects/no-more-woof.
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