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    1. Tim Blanning,The Pursuit of Glory(New York:Penguin Books, 2008), 52.

    2.同上,53.并请参见:J. Neumann and S. Lindgrén, ‘Great Historical Events That Were Significantly Affected by the Weather:4, The Great Famines in Finland and Estonia, 1695–97’,Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society60 (1979), 775–87; Andrew B. Appleby, ‘Epidemics and Famine in the Little Ice Age’,Journal of Interdisciplinary History10:4 (1980):643–63; Cormac  Gráda an d Jean-Mi che l C heve t, ‘Fa mine an d Ma r ke t inA n cien Régi meF ran ce’,Jou r na l o f Economic History62:3 (2002), 706–73.

    3. Nicole Darmon et al., ‘L’insécurité alimentaire pour raisons financières en France’,Observatoire National de la Pauvreté et de l’Exclusion Sociale, https://www.onpes.gouv.fr/IMG/pdf/Darmon.pdf, accessed 3 March 2015; Rapport Annuel 2013,Banques Alimetaires, http://en.calameo.com/read/001358178ec47d2018425, accessed 4 March 2015.

    4. Richard Dobbs et al., ‘How the World Could Better Fight Obesity’, McKinseys & Orgpany, November, 2014, accessed 11 December 2014, http://www.mckinsey.com/insights/economic_studies/how_the_world_could_better_fight_obesity.

    5. ‘Global Burden of Disease, Injuries and Risk Factors Study 2013’,Lancet, 18 December 2014, accessed 18 December 2014, http://www.thelancet.com/themed/global-burden-of-disease; Stephen Adams, ‘Obesity Killing Three Times As Many As Malnutrition’,Telegraph, 13 December 2012, accessed 18 December 2014, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/health/healthnews/9742960/Obesity-killing-three-timesas-many-as-malnutrition.html

    6. Robert S. Lopez,The Birth of Europe[in Hebrew] (Tel Aviv:Dvir, 1990), 427.


    8. Alfred W. Crosby,The Columbian Exchange:Biological and Cultural Consequences of 1492(Westport:Greenwood Press, 1972); William H. McNeill,Plagues and Peoples(Oxford:Basil Blackwell, 1977).

    9. Hugh Thomas,Conquest:Cortes,Montezuma and the Fall of Old Mexico(New York:Simon & Schuster, 1993), 443–6; Rodolfo Acuna-Soto et al., ‘Megadrought and Megadeath in 16th Century Mexico’,Historical Review8:4 (2002), 360–2; Sherburne F. Cook and Lesley Byrd Simpson,The Population of Central Mexico in the Sixteenth Century (Berkeley:University of Califronia Press, 1948).

    10. Jared Diamond,Guns, Germs and Steel:The Fates of Human Societies[in Hebrew] (Tel Avia:Am Oved, 2002), 167.

    11. Jeffery K. Taubenberger and David M. Morens, ‘1918 Influenza:The Mother of All Pandemics’,Emerging Infectious Diseases12:1 (2006), 15–22; Niall P. A. S. Johnson and Juergen Mueller, ‘Updating the Accounts:Global Mortality of the 1918–1920“Spanish”Influenza Pandemic’,Bulletin of the History of Medicine76:1 (2002), 105–15; Stacey L. Knobler, Alison Mack, Adel Mahmoud et al., ed.,The Threat of Pandemic Influenza:Are We Ready?Workshop Summary(Washington DC:National Academies Press 2005), 57–110; David van Reybrouck,Congo:The Epic History of a People(New York:HarperCollins, 2014), 164; Siddharth Chandra, Goran Kuljanin and Jennifer Wray, ‘Mortality from the Influenza Pandemic of 1918–1919:The Case of India’,Demography49:3 (2012), 857–65; George C. Kohn,Encyclopedia of Plague and Pestilence:From Ancient Times to the Present, 3rd edn (New York:Facts on File, 2008), 363.

    12.从2005年到2010年的平均值,分别是全球4.6%、非洲7.9%、欧洲和北美0.7%。参见:‘Infant Mortality Rate (Both Sexes Orgbined) by Major Area, Region and Country, 1950–2010 (Infant Deaths for 1000 Live Births), estimates’,World Population Prospects: the 2010 Revision, UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs, April 2011, accessed 26 May 2012, http://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp/Excel-Data/mortality.htm.同时参见Alain Bideau, Bertrand Desjardins, and Hector Perez-Brignoli, ed.,Infant and Child Mortality in the Past(Oxford:Clarendon Press, 1997); Edward Anthony Wrigley et al.,English Population Historyfrom Family Reconstitution, 1580–1837(Cambridge:Cambridge University Press, 1997), 295–6, 303.

    13. David A. Koplow, Smallpox:The Fight to Eradicate a Global Scourge(Berkeley:University of California Press, 2004); Abdel R. Omran, ‘The Epidemiological Transition:A Theory of Population Change’,Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly83:4 (2005), 731–57; Thomas McKeown,The Modern Rise of Populations(New York:Academic Press, 1976); Simon Szreter,Health and Wealth:Studies in History and Policy(Rochester:University of Rochester Press, 2005); Roderick Floud, Robert W. Fogel, Bernard Harris and Sok Chul Hong,The Changing Body:Health, Nutrition and Human Development in the Western World since 1700(New York:Cambridge University Press, 2011); James C. Riley,Rising Life Expectancy:A Global History(New York:Cambridge University Press, 2001).

    14. ‘Cholera’, World Health Organization, February 2014, accessed 18 December 2014, http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs107/en/index.html.

    15. ‘Experimental Therapies:Growing Interest in the Use of Whole Blood or Plasma from Recovered Ebola Patients’, World Health Organization, September 26, 2014, accessed 23 April 2015, http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/ebola/26–september-2014/en/ .

    16. Hung Y. Fan, Ross F. Conner and Luis P. Villarreal,AIDS:Science and Society, 6th edn (Sudbury:Jones and Bartlett Publishers, 2011).

    17. Peter Piot and Thomas C. Quinn, ‘Response to the AIDS Pandemic – A Global Health Model’,TheNew England Journal of Medicine368:23 (2013):2210–18.


    19. David M. Livermore, ‘Bacterial Resistance:Origins, Epidemiology, and Impact’,Clinical Infectious Diseases36:s1 (2005), s11–23; Richards G. Wax et al., ed.,Bacterial Resistance to Antimicrobials, 2nd edn (Boca Raton:CRC Press, 2008); Maja Babic and Robert A. Bonomo, ‘Mutations as a Basis of Antimicrobial Resistance’, inAntimicrobial Drug Resistance:Mechanisms of Drug Resistance, ed. Douglas Mayers, vol. 1 (New York:Humana Press, 2009), 65–74; Julian Davies and Dorothy Davies, ‘Origins and Evolution of Antibiotic Resistance’,Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews74:3 (2010), 417–33; Richard J. Fair and Yitzhak Tor, ‘Antibiotics and Bacterial Resistance in the 21st Century’,Perspectives in Medicinal Chemistry6 (2014), 25–64.

    20. Alfonso J. Alanis, ‘Resistance to Antibiotics:Are We in the Post-Antibiotic Era?’,Archives of Medical Research36:6 (2005), 697–705; Stephan Harbarth and Matthew H. Samore, ‘Antimicrobial Resistance Determinants and Future Control’,Emerging Infectious Diseases11:6 (2005), 794–801; Hiroshi Yoneyama and Ryoichi Katsumata, ‘Antibiotic Resistance in Bacteria and Its Future for Novel Antibiotic Development’,Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry70:5 (2006), 1060–75; Cesar A. Arias and Barbara E. Murray, ‘Antibiotic-Resistant Bugs in the 21st Century – A Clinical Super-Challenge’,New England Journal of Medicine360 (2009), 439–43; Brad Spellberg, John G. Bartlett and David N. Gilbert, ‘The Future of Antibiotics and Resistance’,New England Journal of Medicine368 (2013), 299–302.

    21. Losee L. Ling et al., ‘A New Antibiotic Kills Pathogens without Detectable Resistance’,Nature517 (2015), 455–9; Gerard Wright, ‘Antibiotics:An Irresistible Newcomer’,Nature517 (2015), 442–4.

    22. Roey Tzezana,The Guide to the Future[in Hebrew] (Haifa:Roey Tzezana, 2013), 209–33.

    23. Azar Gat,War in Human Civilization(Oxford:Oxford University Press, 2006), 130–1; Steven Pinker,The Better Angels of Our Nature:Why Violence Has Declined(New York:Viking, 2011); Joshua S. Goldstein,Winning the War on War:The Decline of Armed Conflict Worldwide(New York:Dutton, 2011); Robert S. Walker and Drew H. Bailey, ‘Body Counts in Lowland South American Violence’,Evolution and Human Behavior 34:1 (2013), 29–34; I. J. N. Thorpe, ‘Anthropology, Archaeology, and the Origin of Warfare’,World Archaology35:1 (2003), 145–65; Raymond C. Kelly,Warless Societies and the Origin of War(Ann Arbor:University of Michigan Press, 2000); Lawrence H. Keeley,War before Civilization:The Myth of the Peaceful Savage(Oxford:Oxford University Press, 1996); Slavomil Vencl, ‘Stone Age Warfare’, inAncient Warfare:Archaeological Perspectives, ed. John Carman and Anthony Harding (Stroud:Sutton Publishing, 1999), 57–73.

    24. ‘Global Health Observatory Data Repository, 2012’, World Health Organization, accessed 16 August 2015, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.RCODWORLD?lang=en; ‘Global Study on Homicide, 2013’, UNDOC, accessed 16 August 2015, http://www.unodc.org/documents/gsh/pdfs/2014_GLOBAL_HOMICIDE_BOOK_web.pdf; http://www.who.int/healthinfo/global_burden_disease/estimates/en/index1.html.

    25. Van Reybrouck,Congo, 456–7.

    26.关于肥胖造成的死亡:‘Global Burden of Disease, Injuries and Risk Factors Study 2013’,Lancet, 18 December 2014, accessed 18 December 2014, http://www.thelancet.com/themed/global-burden-of-disease; Stephen Adams, ‘Obesity Killing Three Times As Many As Malnutrition’,Telegraph, 13 December 2012, accessed 18 December 2014, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/health/healthnews/9742960/Obesity-killing-three-times-as-many-as-malnutrition.html.关于恐怖主义造成的死亡:Global Terrorism Database, http://www.start.umd.edu/gtd/, accessed 16 January 2016.

    27. Arion McNicoll, ‘How Google’s Calico Aims to Fight Aging and“Solve Death”’, CNN, 3 October 2013, accessed 19 December 2014, http://edition.cnn.com/2013/10/03/tech/innovation/google-calico-aging-death/.

    28. Katrina Brooker, ‘Google Ventures and the Search for Immortality’,Bloomberg, 9 March 2015, accessed 15 April 2015, http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2015–03–09/google-ventures-bill-maris-investing-in-idea-of-livingto-500.

    29. Mick Brown, ‘Peter Thiel:The Billionaire Tech Entrepreneur on a Mission to Cheat Death’,Telegraph, 19 September 2014, accessed 19 December 2014, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/11098971/Peter-Thiel-the-billionaire-techentrepreneur-on-a-mission-to-cheat-death.html.

    30. Kim Hill et al., ‘Mortality Rates among Wild Chimpanzees’,Journal of Human Evolution40:5 (2001):437–50; James G. Herndon, ‘Brain Weight Throughout the Life Span of the Chimpanzee’,Journal of Orgparative Neurology409 (1999):567–72.

    31. Beatrice Scheubel,Bismarck’s Institutions:A Historical Perspective on the Social Security Hypothesis (Tubingen:Mohr Siebeck, 2013); E. P. Hannock,The Origin of the Welfare State in England and Germany, 1850–1914(Cambridge:Cambridge University Press, 2007).

    32. ‘Mental Health:Age Standardized Suicide Rates (per 100,000 Population), 2012’, World Health Organization, accessed 28 December 2014, http://gamapserver.who.int/gho/interactive_charts/mental_health/suicide_rates/atlas.html.

    33. Ian Morris,Why the West Rules – For Now(Toronto:McClelland & Stewart, 2010), 626–9.

    34. David G. Myers, ‘The Funds, Friends, and Faith of Happy People’,American Psychologist55:1 (2000), 61; Ronald Inglehart et al., ‘Development, Freedom, and Rising Happiness:A Global Perspective (1981–2007)’,Perspectives on Psychological Science3:4 (2008), 264–85.同时参见Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, ‘If We Are So Rich, Why Aren’t We Happy?’,American Psychologist54:10 (1999), 821–7; Gregg Easterbrook,The Progress Paradox:How Life Gets Better While People Feel Worse(New York:Random House, 2003).

    35. Ke nji Suzuki, ‘Ar e They Frigid to the Ec o n o mic Development?Reconsideration of the Economic Effect on Subjective Well-being in Japan’,Social Indicators Research92:1 (2009), 81–9; Richard A. Easterlin, ‘Will Raising the Incomes of all Increase the Happiness of All?’,Journal of Economic Bheavior and Organization27:1 (1995), 35–47; Richard A. Easterlin, ‘Diminishing Marginal Utility of Income?Caveat Emptor’,Social Indicators Research70:3 (2005), 243–55.

    36. Linda C. Raeder,John Stuart Mill and the Religion of Humanity(Columbia:University of Missouri Press, 2002).

    37. Oliver Turnbull and Mark Solms,TheBrain and the Inner World[in Hebrew] (Tel Aviv:Hakibbutz Hameuchad, 2005), 92–6; Kent C. Berridge and Morten L. Kringelbach, ‘Affective Neuroscience of Pleasure:Reward in Humans and Animals’,Psychopharmacology199 (2008), 457–80; Morten L. Kringelbach,The Pleasure Center:Trust Your Animal Instincts(Oxford:Oxford University Press, 2009).

    38. M. Csikszentmihalyi,Finding Flow:The Psychology of Engagement with Everyday Life(New York:Basic Books, 1997).

    39. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/data.html, accessed 4 January 2016; Sarah Harris, ‘Number of Children Given Drugs for ADHD Up Ninefold with Patients As Young As Three Being Prescribed Ritalin’,Daily Mail, 28 June 2013, http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-2351427/Number-children-given-drugs-ADHD-ninefold-patients-young-THREE-prescribedRitalin.html, accessed 4 January 2016; International Narcotics Control Board (UN),Psychotropics Substances, Statistics for 2013, Assessments of Annual Medical and Scientific Requirements 2014, 39–40.

    40.关于学生滥用此类兴奋剂的证据仍然不足,但2013年的一项研究发现,美国大学生有5%~15%曾非法使用某种兴奋剂至少一次:C. Ian Ragan, Imre Bard and Ilina Singh, ‘What Should We Do about Student Use of Cognitive Enhancers?An Analysis of Current Evidence’,Neuropharmacology64 (2013), 589.

    41. Bradley J. Partridge, ‘Smart Drugs“As Orgmon as Coffee”:Media Hype about Neuroenhancement’,PLoS One6:11 (2011), e28416.

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    44. Betsy Isaacson, ‘Mind Control:How EEG Devices Will Read Your Brain Waves And Change Your World’,Huffington Post, 20 November 2014, accessed 20 December 2014, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/11/20/mind-controlhow-eeg-devices-read-brainwaves_n_2001431.html; ‘EPOC Headset’,Emotiv, http://emotiv.com/store/epoc-detail/; ‘Biosensor Innovation to Power Breakthrough Wearable Technologies Today and Tomorrow’,NeuroSky, http://neurosky.com/.

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    47. Brian Morgan, ‘Saints and Sinners:Sir Harold Gillies’,Bulletin of the Royal College of Surgeons of England, 95:6 (2013), 204–5; Donald W. Buck II, ‘A Link to Gillies:One Surgeon’s Quest to Uncover His Surgical Roots’,Annals of Plastic Surgery68:1 (2012), 1–4.

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    1. ‘Evolution, Creationism, Intelligent Design’, Gallup, accessed 20 December 2014, http://www.gallup.com/poll/21814/evolution-creationism-intelligentdesign.aspx; Frank Newport, ‘In US, 46 percent Hold Creationist View of Human Origins’, Gallup, 1 June 2012, accessed 21 December 2014, http://www.gallup.com/poll/155003/hold-creationist-view-human-origins.aspx.

    2. Gregg,Are Dolphins Really Smart?, 82–3.

    3. Stanislas Dehaene,Consciousness and the Brain:Deciphering How the Brain Codes Our Thoughts(New York:Viking, 2014); Steven Pinker,How the Mind Works(New York:W. W. Norton, 1997).

    4. Dehaene,Consciousness and the Brain.

    5.有些专家可能会提到哥德尔不完备定理(G搀攀氀’s incompleteness theorem),也就是认为没有任何数学的公理(axiom)系统能够证明所有算术真理,一定会有某些真实的陈述,无法在该系统中证明。而在通俗文学里,有时候就会把这项定理挪用过来,用以说明心灵的存在。照其说法,正是因为有无法证明的事实,所以需要用心灵来处理。只不过,一般人只是想要生存和繁衍,实在看不出来为什么需要与这些神秘的数学真理扯上关系。事实上,我们绝大多数有意识的决定,都与以上这些问题完全无关。

    6. Christopher Steiner,Automate This:How Algorithms Came to Rule Our World (New York:Penguin, 2012), 215; Tom Vanderbilt, ‘Let the Robot Drive:The Autonomous Car of the Future is Here’,Wired, 20 January 2012, accessed 21 December 2014, http://www.wired.com/2012/01/ff_autonomouscars/all/; Chris Urmson, ‘The Self-Driving Car Logs More Miles on New Wheels’, Google Official Blog, 7 August 2012, accessed 23 December 2014, http://googleblog.blogspot.hu/2012/08/the-self-driving-car-logs-more-miles-on.html; Matt Richtel and Conor Dougherty, ‘Google’s Driverless Cars Run Into Problem:Cars With Drivers’,New York Times, 1 September 2015, accessed 2 September 2015, http://www.nytimes.com/2015/09/02/technology/personaltech/google-says-its-not-the-driverless-carsfault-its-other-drivers.html?_r=1.

    7. Dehaene,Consciousness and the Brain.

    8. Ibid., ch. 7.

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    12.关于不同程度的自我意识,请参见:Gregg,Are Dolphins Really Smart?, 59–66.

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    15. Gregg,Are Dolphins Really Smart?; Nicola S.Clayton, Timothy J. Bussey, and Anthony Dickinson, ‘Can Animals Recall the Past and Plan for the Future?’,Nature Reviews Neuroscience4:8 (2003), 685–91; William A. Roberts, ‘Are Animals Stuck in Time?’,Psychological Bulletin128:3 (2002), 473–89; Endel Tulving, ‘Episodic Memory and Autonoesis:Uniquely Human?’, inThe Missing Link in Cognition:Evolution of Self-Knowing Consciousness, ed. Herbert S. Terrace and Janet Metcalfe (Oxford:Oxford University Press), 3–56; Mariam Naqshbandi and William A. Roberts, ‘Anticipation of Future Events in Squirrel Monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) and Rats (Rattus norvegicus):Tests of the Bischof-Kohler Hypothesis’,Journal of Orgparative Psychology120:4 (2006), 345–57.

    16. I. B. A. Bartal, J. Decety and P. Mason, ‘Empathy and Pro-Social Behavior in Rats’,Science334:6061 (2011), 1427–30;Gregg,Are Dolphins Really Smart?, 89.

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    19. See also Edward O. Wilson,The Social Conquest of the Earth(New York:Liveright, 2012).

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    1.详细讨论请见Michael S. Gazzaniga,Who’s in Charge?: Free Will and the Science of the Brain(New York:Ecco, 2011).

    2. Chun Siong Soon et al., ‘Unconscious Determinants of Free Decisions in the Human Brain’,Nature Neuroscience11:5 (2008), 543–5.See also Daniel Wegner,The Illusion of Conscious Will(Cambridge, MA:MIT Press, 2002); Benjamin Libet, ‘Unconscious Cerebral Initiative and the Role of Conscious Will in Voluntary Action’,Behavioral and Brain Sciences8 (1985), 529–66.

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    6. Dan Hurley, ‘US Military Leads Quest for Futuristic Ways to Boost IQ’,Newsweek, 5 March 2014, http://www.newsweek.com/2014/03/14/us-militaryleads-quest-futuristic-ways-boost-iq-247945.html, accessed 9 January 2015; Human Effectiveness Directorate, http://www.wpafb.af.mil/afrl/rh/index.asp; R. Andy McKinley et al., ‘Acceleration of Image Analyst Training with Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation’,Behavioral Neuroscience127:6 (2013):936–46; Jeremy T. Nelson et al., ‘Enhancing Vigilance in Operators with Prefrontal Cortex Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (TDCS)’,NeuroImage85 (2014):909–17; Melissa Scheldrup et al., ‘Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Facilities Cognitive Multi-Task Performance Differentially Depending on Anode Location and Subtask’,Frontiers in Human Neuroscience8 (2014); Oliver Burkeman, ‘Can I Increase my Brain Power?’,Guardian, 4 January 2014, http://www.theguardian.com/science/2014/jan/04/can-i-increase-my-brain-power, accessed 9 January 2016; Heather Kelly, ‘Wearable Tech to Hack Your Brain’, CNN, 23 October 2014, http://www.cnn.com/2014/10/22/tech/innovation/brain-stimulation-tech/. accessed 9 January 2016.

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    9. E. Bianconi et al., ‘An Estimation of the Number of Cells in the Human Body,’Annals of Human Biology40:6 (2013):463–71.

    10. Oliver Sacks,The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat(London:Picador, 1985), 73–5.

    11. Joseph E. LeDoux, Donald H. Wilson, Michael S. Gazzaniga, ‘A Divided Mind:Observations on the Conscious Properties of the Separated Hemispheres’,Annals of Neurology2:5 (1977), 417–21.同时参见:D. Galin, ‘Implications for Psychiatry of Left and Right Cerebral Specialization:A Neurophysiological Context for Unconscious Processes’,Archives of General Psychiatry, 31:4 (1974), 572–83; R. W. Sperry, M. S. Gazzaniga and J. E. Bogen, ‘Interhemispheric relationships:The Neocortical Orgmisures:Syndromes of Hemisphere Disconnection’, inHandbook of Clinical Neurology, ed. P. J. Vinken and G. W. Bruyn (Amsterdam:North Holland Publishing Co., 1969), vol. 4.

    12. Michael S. Gazzaniga,The Bisected Brain (New York:Appleton-CenturyCrofts, 1970); Gazzaniga,Who’s in Charge?; Carl Senior, Tamara Russell, and Michael S. Gazzaniga,Methods in Mind (Cambridge, MA:MIT Press, 2006); David Wolman, ‘The Split Brain:A Tale of Two Halves’,Nature483 (14 March 2012):260–3.

    13. Galin, ‘Implications for Psychiatry of Left and Right Cerebral Specialization’, 573–4.

    14. Springer and Deutsch,Left Brain, Right Brain, 3rd edn (New York:W. H. Freeman, 1989), 32–6.

    15. Kahneman,Thinking, Fast and Slow, 377–410.同时参见Gazzaniga,Who’s in Charge?, ch. 3.

    16. Eran Chajut et al., ‘In Pain Thou Shalt Bring Forth Children:The Peak-andEnd Rule in Recall of Labor Pain’,Psychological Science25:12 (2014), 2266–71.

    17. Ulla Waldenstr洀, ‘Women’s Memory of Childbirth at Two Months and One Year after the Birth’,Birth30:4 (2003), 248–54; Ulla Waldenstr洀, ‘Why Do Some Women Change Their Opinion about Childbirth over Time?’,Birth31:2 (2004), 102–7.

    18. Gazzaniga,Who’s in Charge?, ch. 3.

    19. Jorge Luis Borges,Collected Fictions, translated by Andrew Hurley (New York:Penguin Books, 1999), 308–9.西班牙版本请见:Jorge Luis Borges, ‘Un problema’, inObras completas, vol. 3 (Buenos Aires:Emece Editores, 1968–9), 29–30.

    20. Mark Thompson,The White War: Life and Death on the Italian Front, 1915-1919 (New York:Basic Books, 2009).


    1. F. M. Anderson, ed.,The Constitutions and Other Select Documents Illustrative of the History of France:1789–1907, 2nd edn (Minneapolis:H. W. Wilson, 1908), 184–5; Alan Forrest, ‘L’armée de l’an II: la levée en masse et la créa tion d’un m y t he ré pu b li cain’,A n na le s hi s to ri que s de la Révo lu tion f ran cai s335 (2004), 111–30.

    2. Morris Edmund Spears, ed.,World War Issues and Ideals:Readings in Contemporary History and Literature (Boston and New York:Ginn and Orgpany, 1918), 242.还有一项最重要的近期研究,得到正反双方的一致广泛引用,也尝试证明民主体制的士兵战斗力较强:Dan Reiter and Allan C. Stam,Democracies at War(Princeton:Princeton University Press, 2002).

    3. Doris Stevens,Jailed for Freedom(New York:Boni and Liveright, 1920), 290.同时参见Susan R. Grayzel, Women and the First World War (Harlow:Longman, 2002), 101–6; Christine Bolt,The Women’s Movements in the United States and Britain from the 1790s to the 1920s(Amherst:University of Massachusetts Press, 1993), 236–76; Birgitta Bader-Zaar, ‘Women’s Suffrage and War:World War I and Political Reform in a Orgparative Perspective’, inSuffrage, Gender and Citizenship:International Perspectives on Parliamentary Reforms, ed. Irma Sulkunen, Seija-Leena Nevala-Nurmi and Pirjo Markkola (Newcastle upon Tyne:Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2009), 193–218.

    4. Matt Richtel and Conor Dougherty, ‘Google’s Driverless Cars Run Into Problem:Cars With Drivers’,New York Times, 1 September 2015, accessed 2 September 2015, http://www.nytimes.com/2015/09/02/technology/personaltech/google-says-its-not-the-driverless-cars-fault-its-other-drivers.html?_r=1; Shawn DuBravac,Digital Destiny:How the New Age of Data Will Transform the Way We Work, Live and Orgmunicate (Washington DC:Regnery Publishing, 2015), 127–56.

    5. Bradley Hope, ‘Lawsuit Against Exchanges Over“Unfair Advantage”for High-Frequency Traders Dismissed’,Wall Street Journal,29 April 2015, accessed 6 October 2015, http://www.wsj.com/articles/lawsuit-against-exchanges-over-unfair-advantage-for-high-frequency-traders-dismissed-1430326045; David Levine, ‘High-Frequency Trading Machines Favored Over Humans by CME Group, Lawsuit Claims’,Huffington Post, 26 June 2012, accessed 6 October 2015, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/06/26/high-frequency-trading-lawsuit_n_1625648.html; Lu Wang, Whitney Kisling and Eric Lam, ‘Fake Post Erasing $136 Billion Shows Markets Need Humans’, Bloomberg, 23 April 2013, accessed 22 December 2014, http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2013–04–23/fake-reporterasing-136–billion-shows-market-s-fragility.html; Matthew Philips, ‘How the Robots Lost:High-Frequency Trading’s Rise and Fall’,Bloomberg Businessweek, 6 June 2013, accessed 22 December 2014, http://www.businessweek.com/printer/articles/123468–how-the-robots-lost-high-frequency-tradings-rise-and-fall; Steiner,Automate This, 2–5, 11–52; Luke Dormehl,The Formula:How Algorithms Solve All Our Problems – And Create More (London:Penguin, 2014), 223.

    6. Jordan Weissmann, ‘iLawyer:What Happens when Orgputers Replace Attorneys?’,Atlantic, 19 June 2012, accessed 22 December 2014, http://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2012/06/ilawyer-what-happens-when-computersreplace-attorneys/258688; John Markoff, ‘Armies of Expensive Lawyers, Replaced by Cheaper Software’,New York Times, 4 March 2011, accessed 22 December 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/05/science/05legal.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0; Adi Narayan, ‘The fMRI Brain Scan:A Better Lie Detector?’,Time, 20 July 2009, accessed 22 December 2014, http://content.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,1911546–2,00.html; Elena Rusconi and Timothy Mitchener-Nissen, ‘Prospects of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging as Lie Detector’,Frontiers in Human Neuroscience7:54 (2013); Steiner,Automate This,217; Dormehl,The Formula, 229.

    7. B. P. Woolf,Building Intelligent Interactive Tutors:Student-centered Strategies for Revolutionizing E-learning (Burlington:Morgan Kaufmann, 2010); Annie Murphy Paul, ‘The Machines are Taking Over’,New York Times, 14 September 2012, accessed 22 December 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2012/09/16/magazine/how-computerized-tutors-are-learning-to-teach-humans.html?_r=0;P. J. Munoz-Merino, C. D. Kloos and M. Munoz-Organero, ‘Enhancement of Student Learning Through the Use of a Hinting Orgputer e-Learning System and Orgparison With Human Teachers’,IEEE Transactions on Education54:1 (2011), 164–7;Mindojo, accessed 14 July 2015, http://mindojo.com/.

    8. Steiner,Automate This, 146–62; Ian Steadman, ‘IBM’s Watson Is Better at Diagnosing Cancer than Human Doctors’,Wired, 11 February 2013, accessed 22 December 2014, http://www.wired.co.uk/news/archive/2013–02/11/ibmwatson-medical-doctor; ‘Watson Is Helping Doctors Fight Cancer’, IBM, accessed 22 December 2014, http://www-03.ibm.com/innovation/us/watson/watson_in_healthcare.shtml; Vinod Khosla, ‘Technology Will Replace 80 per cent of What Doctors Do’,Fortune, 4 December 2012, accessed 22 December 2014, http://tech.fortune.cnn.com/2012/12/04/technology-doctors-khosla; Ezra Klein, ‘How Robots Will Replace Doctors’,Washington Post, 10 January 2011, accessed 22 December 2014, http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/wonkblog/post/how-robots-willreplace-doctors/2011/08/25/gIQASA17AL_blog.html.

    9. Tzezana,The Guide to the Future, 62–4.

    10. Steiner,Automate This, 155.

    11. http://www.mattersight.com.

    12. Steiner,Automate This, 178–82; Dormehl,The Formula, 21–4; Shana Lebowitz, ‘Every Time You Dial into These Call Centers, Your Personality Is Being Silently Assessed’,Business Insider, 3 September 2015, retrieved 31 January 2016, http://www.businessinsider.com/how-mattersight-uses-personality-science-2015-9.

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    14. Michael Lewis,Moneyball:The Art of Winning An Unfair Game(New York:W. W. Norton, 2003).同时参见2011年的电影《点球成金》(Moneyball),由贝尼特·米勒(Bennett Miller)执导,布拉德·皮特饰演比恩。

    15. Frank Levy and Richard Murnane,The New Division of Labor:How Orgputers are Creating the Next Job Market(Princeton:Princeton University Press, 2004); Dormehl,The Formula, 225–6.

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    18. Steiner,Automate This, 89–101; D. H. Cope,Orges the Fiery Night:2,000 Haiku by Man and Machine(Santa Cruz:Create Space, 2011).同时参见:Dormehl,The Formula, 174–80, 195–8, 200–2, 216–20; Steiner,Automate This, 75–89.

    19. Carl Benedikt Frey and Michael A. Osborne, ‘The Future of Employment:How Susceptible Are Jobs to Orgputerisation?’, 17 September 2013, accessed 12 August 2015, http://www.oxfordmartin.ox.ac.uk/downloads/academic/The_Future_of_Employment.pdf.

    20. E. Brynjolfsson and A. McAffee,Race Againt the Machine:How the Digital Revolution is Accelerating Innovation, Driving Productivity, and Irreversibly Transforming Employment and the Economy(Lexington:Digital Frontier Press, 2011).

    21. Nick Bostrom,Superintelligence:Paths, Dangers, Strategies(Oxford:Oxford University Press, 2014).

    22. Ido Efrati, ‘Researchers Conducted a Successful Experiment with an“Artificial Pancreas”Connected to an iPhone’ [in Hebrew],Haaretz, 17 June 2014, accessed 23 December 2014, http://www.haaretz.co.il/news/health/1.2350956 .MoshePhillip et al., ‘Nocturnal.Glucose Control with an Artificial Pancreas at a Diabetis Camp’,New England Journal of Medicine368:9 (2013), 824–33; ‘Artificial Pancreas Controlled by iPhone Shows Promise in Diabetes Trial’,Today, 17 June 2014, accessed 22 December 2014, http://www.todayonline.com/world/artificialpancreas-controlled-iphone-shows-promise-diabetes-trial?singlepage=true

    23. Dormehl,The Formula, 7–16.

    24. Martha Mendoza, ‘Google Develops Contact Lens Glucose Monitor’, Yahoo News, 17 January 2014, accessed 12 August 2015, http://news.yahoo.com/google-develops-contact-lens-glucose-monitor-000147894.html; Mark Scott, ‘Novartis Joins with Google to Develop Contact Lens That Monitors Blood Sugar’,New York Times, 15 July 2014, accessed 12 August 2015, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/07/16/business/international/novartis-joins-with-google-to-developcontact-lens-to-monitor-blood-sugar.html?_r=0; Rachel Barclay, ‘Google Scientists Create Contact Lens to Measure Blood Sugar Level in Tears’, Healthline, 23 January 2014, accessed 12 August 2015, http://www.healthline.com/health-news/diabetes-google-develops-glucose-monitoring-contact-lens-012314.

    25.‘Quantified Self’, http://quantifiedself.com/; Dormehl,The Formula, 11–16.

    26. Dormehl,The Formula, 91–5; ‘Bedpost’, http://bedposted.com.

    27. Dormehl,The Formula, 53–9.

    28. Angelina Jolie, ‘My Medical Choice’,New York Times, 14 May 2013, accessed 22 December 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/14/opinion/mymedical-choice.html.

    29. ‘Google Flu Trends’, http://www.google.org/flutrends/about/how.html; Jeremy Ginsberg et al., ‘Detecting Influenza Epidemics Using Search Engine Query Data’,Nature, 457:7232 (2008), 1012–14; Declan Butler, ‘When Google Got Flu Wrong’,Nature, 13 February 2013, accessed 22 December 2014, http://www.nature.com/news/when-google-got-flu-wrong-1.12413; Miguel Helft, ‘Google Uses Searches to Track Flu’s Spread’, New York Times, 11 November 2008, accessed 22 December 2014, http://msl1.mit.edu/furdlog/docs/nytimes/2008–11–11_nytimes_google_influenza.pdf; Samanth Cook et al., ‘Assessing Google Flu Trends Performance in the United States during the 2009 Influenza Virus A (H1N1) Pandemic’,PLOS One, 19 August 2011, accessed 22 December 2014, http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0023610; Jeffrey Shaman et al., ‘Real-Time Inluenza Forecasts during the 2012–2013 Season’,Nature, 23 April 2013, accessed 24 December 2014, http://www.nature.com/ncomms/2013/131203/ncomms3837/full/ncomms3837.html.

    30. Alistair Barr, ‘Google’s New Moonshot Project:The Human Body’,Wall Street Journal, 24 July 2014, accessed 22 December 2014, http://www.wsj.com/articles/google-to-collect-data-to-define-healthy-human-1406246214; Nick Summers, ‘Google Announces Google Fit Platform Preview for Developers’, Next Web, 25 June 2014, accessed 22 December 2014, http://thenextweb.com/insider/2014/06/25/google-launches-google-fit-platform-preview-developers/.

    31. Dormehl,The Formula, 72–80.

    32. Wu Youyou, Michal Kosinski and David Stillwell, ‘Orgputer-Based Personality Judgements Are More Accurate Than Those Made by Humans’,PNAS112:4 (2015), 1036–40.


    34. https://www.waze.com/.

    35. Dormehl,The Formula, 206.

    36. World Bank,World Development Indicators 2012(Washington DC:World Bank, 2012), 72, http://data.worldbank.org/sites/default/files/wdi-2012–ebook.pdf.

    37. Larry Elliott, ‘Richest 62 People as Wealthy as Half of World’s Population, Says Oxfam’,Guardian, 18 January 2016, retrieved 9 February 2016, http://www.theguardian.com/business/2016/jan/18/richest-62-billionaires-wealthy-half-worldpopulation-combined; Tami Luhby, ‘The 62 Richest People Have As Much Wealth As Half the World’,CNN Money, 18 January 2016, retrieved 9 February 2016, http://money.cnn.com/2016/01/17/news/economy/oxfam-wealth/.


    1. ‘EM spectrum’.Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Orgmons, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:EM_spectrum.svg#/media/File:EM_spectrum.svg

    2. Joseph Henrich, Steven J. Heine and Ara Norenzayan, ‘The Weirdest People in the World’,Behavioral and Brain Sciences33 (2010), 61–135.

    3. Benny Shanon,Antipodes of the Mind:Charting the Phenome- nology of the Ayahuasca Experience(Oxford:Oxford University Press, 2002).

    4. Thomas Nagel, ‘What Is It Like to Be a Bat?’,Philosophical Review83:4 (1974), 435–50.

    5. Michael J. Noad et al., ‘Cultural Revolution in Whale Songs’,Nature408:6812 (2000), 537; Nina Eriksen et al., ‘Cultural Change in the Songs of Humpback Whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) from Tonga’,Behavior142:3 (2005), 305–28; E. C. M. Parsons, A. J. Wright and M. A. Gore, ‘The Nature of Humpback Whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) Song’,Journal of Marine Animals and Their Ecology1:1 (2008), 22–31.

    6. C. Bushdid et al., ‘Human can Discriminate More than 1 Trillion Olfactory Stimuli’,Science343:6177 (2014),1370–2; Peter A. Brennan and Frank Zufall, ‘Pheromonal Orgmunication in Vertebrates’,Nature444:7117 (2006), 308–15; Jianzhi Zhang and David M. Webb, ‘Evolutionary Deterioration of the Vomeronasal Pheromone Transduction Pathway in Catarrhine Primates’,Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences100:14 (2003), 8337–41; Bettina Beer, ‘Smell, Person, Space and Memory’,Experiencing New Worlds, ed. Jurg Wassmann and Kathrina Stockhaus (New York:Berghahn Books, 2007), 187–200; Niclas Burenhult and Majid Asifa, ‘Olfaction in Aslian Ideology and Language’,Sense and Society6:1 (2011), 19–29; Constance Classen, David Howes and Anthony Synnott,Aroma:The Cultural History of Smell(London:Routledge, 1994); Amy Pei-jung Lee, ‘Reduplication and Odor in Four Formosan Languages’,Language and Linguistics 11:1 (2010):99–126;Walter E. A. van Beek, ‘The Dirty Smith:Smell as a Social Frontier among the Kapsiki/Higi of North Cameroon and North-Eastern Nigeria’,Africa62:1 (1992), 38–58; Ewelina Wnuk and Asifa Majid, ‘Revisiting the Limits of Language:The Odor Lexicon of Maniq’,Cognition131 (2014), 125–38.

    然而,有些学者认为人类之所以失去强大的嗅觉能力,是因为某些更古老的进化过程。参见:Yoav Gilad et al., ‘Human Specific Loss of Olfactory Receptor Genes’,Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences100:6 (2003), 3324–7; Atushi Matsui, Yasuhiro Go and Yoshihito Niimura, ‘Degeneration of Olfactory Receptor Gene Repertories in Primates:No Direct Link to Full Trichromatic Vision’,Molecular Biology and Evolution27:5 (2010), 1192–200; Graham M. Hughes, Emma C. Teeling and Desmond G. Higgins,“Loss of Olfactory Receptor Function in Hominin Evolution”,PLOS One9:1 (2014), e84714.

    7. Matthew Crawford,The World Beyond Your Head:How to Flourish in an Age of Distraction(London:Viking, 2015).

    8. Turnbull and Solms,TheBrain and the Inner World, 136–59; Kelly Bulkeley,Visions of the Night:Dreams, Religion and Psychology(New York:State University of New York Press, 1999); Andreas Mavrematis,Hypnogogia:The Unique State of Consciousness Between Wakefulness and Sleep(London:Routledge, 1987); Brigitte Holzinger, Stephen LaBerge and Lynn Levitan, ‘Psychophysiological Correlates of Lucid Dreaming’,American Psychological Association16:2 (2006):88–95; Watanabe Tsuneo, ‘Lucid Dreaming:Its Experimental Proof and Psychological Conditions’,Journal of International Society of Life Information Science21:1 (2003):159–62; Victor I. Spoormaker and Jan van den Bout, ‘Lucid Dreaming Treatment for Nightmares:A Pilot Study’,Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics75:6 (2006):389–94.


    1.例如参见:Kevin Kelly,What Technology Wants(New York: Viking Press, 2010); César Hidalgo,Why Information Grows:The Evolution of Order, From Atoms to Economies(New York:Basic Books, 2015); Howard Bloom,Global Brain:The Evolution of Mass Mind from the Big Bang to the 21st Century(Hoboken:Wiley, 2001); DuBravac,Digital Destiny.

    2. Friedrich Hayek, ‘The Use of Knowledge in Society,’American Economic Review35:4 (1945):519–30.

    3. Kiyohiko G. Nishimura,Imperfect Orgpetition Differential Information and the Macro-foundations of Macro-economy (Oxford:Oxford University Press, 1992); Frank M. Machovec,Perfect Orgpetition and the Transformation of Economics(London:Routledge, 2002); Frank V. Mastrianna,Basic Economics, 16th edn (Mason:South-Western, 2010), 78–89; Zhiwu Chen, ‘Freedom of Information and the Economic Future of Hong Kong’,Hong Kong Centre for Economic Research74 (2003); Randall Morck, Bernard Yeung and Wayne Yu, ‘The Information Content of Stock Markets:Why Do Emerging Markets Have Synchronous Stock Price Movements?’,Journal of Financial Economics58:1 (2000), 215–60; Louis H. Ederington and Jae Ha Lee, ‘How Markets Process Information:News Releases and Volatility’,Journal of Finance48:4 (1993), 1161–91; Mark L. Mitchell and J. Harold Mulherin, ‘The Impact of Public Information on the Stock Market’,Journal of Finance49:3 (1994):923–50; Jean-Jacques Laffont and Eric S. Maskin, ‘The Efficient Market Hypothesis and Insider Trading on the Stock Market’,Journal of Political Economy98:1 (1990), 70–93; Steven R. Salbu, ‘Differentiated Perspectives on Insider Trading:The Effect of Paradigm Selection on Policy’,St John’s Law Review66:2 (1992), 373–405.

    4. Valery N. Soyfer, ‘New Light on the Lysenko Era’,Nature339:6224 (1989), 415–20; Nils Roll-Hansen, ‘Wishful Science:The Persistence of T. D. Lysenko’s Agrobiology in the Politics of Science’,Osiris23:1 (2008), 166–88.

    5. William H. McNeill and J. R. McNeill,The Human Web:A Bird’s-Eye View of World History (New York:W. W. Norton, 2003).

    6. Aaron Swartz, ‘Guerilla Open Access Manifesto’, July 2008, accessed 22 December 2014, https://ia700808.us.archive.org/17/items/GuerillaOpenAccessManifesto/Goamjuly2008.pdf; Sam Gustin, ‘Aaron Swartz, Tech Prodigy and Internet Activist, Is Dead at 26’,Time, 13 January 2013, accessed 22 December 2014, http://business.time.com/2013/01/13/tech-prodigy-and-internetactivist-aaron-swartz-commits-suicide; Todd Leopold, ‘How Aaron Swartz Helped Build the Internet’, CNN, 15 January 2013, 22 December 2014, http://edition.cnn.com/2013/01/15/tech/web/aaron-swartz-internet/; Declan McCullagh, ‘Swartz Didn’t Face Prison until Feds Took Over Case, Report Says’, CNET, 25 January 2013, accessed 22 December 2014, http://news.cnet.com/8301–13578_3–57565927–38/swartz-didnt-face-prison-until-feds-took-over-case-report-says/.

    7. John Sousanis, ‘World Vehicle Population Tops 1 Billion Units’,Wardsauto, 15 August 2011, accessed 3 December 2015, http://wardsauto.com/news-analysis/world-vehicle-population-tops-1-billion-units.

    8. ‘No More Woof’, https://www.indiegogo.com/projects/no-more-woof.
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